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Pediatric long-term care facilities were surveyed to assess infection control and antimicrobial stewardship practices. Policies mandated by the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) were included. Only 40% of sites reported implementing >90% of surveyed CMS policies. The survey also identified several gaps in non–CMS-mandated policies.
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in early childhood is a public health concern. Adequate hydration in early childhood is also important. We developed a national research agenda to improve beverage consumption patterns among 0–5-year-olds. This article focuses on the process used to develop this research agenda.
A mixed methods, multi-step process was used to develop the research agenda, including: (i) a scientific advisory committee; (ii) systematic reviews on strategies to reduce SSB consumption and increase water access and consumption; (iii) two stakeholder surveys to first identify and then rank strategies to reduce SSB consumption and increase water access and consumption; (iv) key informant interviews to better understand determinants of beverage consumption and strategies to improve beverage consumption patterns among high-risk groups; (v) an in-person convening with experts; and (vi) developing the final research agenda.
This process included research and stakeholders from across the United States.
A total of 276 participants completed survey 1 and 182 participants completed survey 2. Key informant interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders. Thirty experts attended the convening, representing academia, government, and non-profit sectors.
Thirteen key issue areas and 59 research questions were developed. Priority topics were beverage consumption recommendations, fruit-flavoured drink consumption, interventions tailored to high-risk groups, and family engagement in childcare.
This research agenda lays the groundwork for research efforts to improve beverage patterns of young children. The methods used can be a template to develop research agendas for other public health issues.
FEMINIST critics of Thomas Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside have focused carefully on the leaky, grotesque female bodies of the play and have argued that they represent cultural anxieties about economic and social order, which these female bodies have the potential to undermine. Such readings have been highly influenced by Gail Kern Paster's “Leaky Vessels: The Incontinent Women of City Comedy,” in which Paster suggests that such representations of the female body “display that body as beyond the control of the female subject, and thus as threatening the acquisitive goals of the family and its maintenance of status and power.” Following Paster, Shannon Miller argues that the play presents women “as both insatiable consumers of value and unstable receptacles of value.” Recent criticism of the play, however, which explores the cultural and ideological work of the play and comments on the economic transactions within it suggests that the complexity of the play necessitates a reexamination of the roles of female characters within the play's economy, particularly one that considers female agency. Despite the fact that a number of scholars recognize that the play “insists on equivalences in the exercise of appetite, both male and female alike” and that, as a “blistering satire,” it “pokes fun” at everyone, the women of the play are frequently described as commodities within a male-controlled economy and thus divested of agency. Kathleen McLuskie, though, argues that “In A Chaste Maid, Middleton presents city dwellers who adapt to social change by learning to exploit it” and that this play, among Middleton's other plays, “is at its most original in extending the roles of city women.” This certainly seems to be the case. I argue that aside from being consumers of goods, the women of the play demonstrate strategic control in a broader economy in which sex, marriage, reproduction, land, and commodities intersect. Not only do these women meet the demand for “honesty” through strategies that allow them to control their value, they are also members of female communities that reinforce subversive agency within a complex urban economy.
Scholars have repeatedly shown that the female body was a locus of anxiety during the early modern period, and Middleton's play taps into those anxieties by presenting the female body as leaky or grotesque and the economy to which it is linked as carnivalesque.
As a new cohort of religious conservatives became major players in U.S. political discourse during the 1970s and 1980s, they expressed ambivalence about the political realm and often represented their religious motivations as simultaneously separate from politics and as justification for their political activism. Prominent conservative evangelical women drew on this ambivalence in specifically gendered ways, referencing their religious commitments as well as their roles as mothers, which they asserted both compelled them to speak out on political issues, and proved that these issues were not fundamentally political. Building on scholarship about women’s grassroots support in conservative movements, this article underscores the importance of women’s national leadership in the New Christian Right. It focuses on the career of singerturned- activist Anita Bryant, who offers a particularly instructive example due to her public and explicit transformation from representative symbol of American motherhood to outspoken political activist in the late 1970s. Within the context of a flourishing evangelical subculture and shifting political landscape, Bryant’s negotiations of her political authority exemplify conservative evangelical women’s ways of understanding their leadership in support of a platform that emphasized women’s domestic roles. It demonstrates how they invoked an existing tension between religious and political identification to expand the ideology of “traditional gender roles” without overstepping its bounds. More broadly, Bryant’s career offers insight into the importance of women’s national leadership in framing the rhetoric and priorities of the New Christian Right, including its central emphases on gender and its relationship with contemporary feminist movements.
Circadian rhythms of parasites and their hosts can influence processes such as transmission, pathology and life cycle evolution. For trematode parasites that depend on free-living infectious stages (i.e. cercariae) to move among host species, the timing of parasite release is hypothesized to increase the likelihood of contacting a host. Yet, a persistent challenge in studying such biorhythms involves selection of appropriate analytical techniques. Here, we extend a generalized linear mixed modelling (GLMM) framework to cosinor analyses, thereby allowing flexibility in the statistical distribution of the response variable, incorporation of multiple covariates and inclusion of hierarchical grouping effects. By applying this approach to 93 snails infected with trematode parasites from freshwater pond ecosystems, we detected non-random rhythms in six of eight species, with variation in both the timing of peak cercariae release (between 5:10 and 21:46 h) and its magnitude (between 13 and 386). The use of GLMM yielded more accurate and precise estimates of the cosinor parameters compared with classical least-squares (LS) based on a simulation-based sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the amplitude and rhythm-adjusted mean values from the LS models diverged from the true values at some limits. We highlight the importance of novel analytical approaches for evaluating parasite circadian rhythms and investigating their underlying mechanisms.