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Research suggests an increased prevalence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and a similar impairment in fear recognition to that reported in non-ASD populations. However, past work has used measures not specifically designed to measure CU traits and has not examined whether decreased attention to the eyes reported in non-ASD populations is also present in individuals with ASD. The current paper uses a measure specifically designed to measure CU traits to estimate prevalence in a large community-based ASD sample. Parents of 189 adolescents with ASD completed questionnaires assessing CU traits, and emotional and behavioral problems. A subset of participants completed a novel emotion recognition task (n = 46). Accuracy, reaction time, total looking time, and number of fixations to the eyes and mouth were measured. Twenty-two percent of youth with ASD scored above a cut-off expected to identify the top 6% of CU scores. CU traits were associated with longer reaction times to identify fear and fewer fixations to the eyes relative to the mouth during the viewing of fearful faces. No associations were found with accuracy or total looking time. Results suggest the mechanisms that underpin CU traits may be similar between ASD and non-ASD populations.
To utilise a community-based participatory approach in the design and implementation of an intervention targeting diet-related health problems on Navajo Nation.
A dual strategy approach of community needs/assets assessment and engagement of cross-sectorial partners in programme design with systematic cyclical feedback for programme modifications.
Navajo Nation, USA.
Navajo families with individuals meeting criteria for programme enrolment. Participant enrolment increased with iterative cycles.
The Navajo Fruit and Vegetable Prescription (FVRx) Programme.
A broad, community-driven and culturally relevant programme design has resulted in a programme able to maintain core programmatic principles, while also allowing for flexible adaptation to changing needs.
Metacognition and perfectionism are factors found to be associated with both anxiety and depression. A common component that underlies these factors is the influence of perseverance, or the tendency to continue a behaviour or thought even if it is no longer productive.
This study aimed to investigate the relationships between metacognitive beliefs with maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (i.e. perseverance behaviours), and their relation to anxiety and depression.
Participants (n = 1033) completed six self-report questionnaires measuring metacognitive beliefs about rumination and worry, perseverance, anxiety and depression. Data were analysed using correlational testing, and structural equation modelling.
Results of structural equation modelling revealed that positive metacognitive beliefs about repetitive negative thinking increased the likelihood to perceive the thinking as uncontrollable, and that perseverance behaviours were predicted by all metacognitive beliefs. Furthermore, examination of partial correlations revealed that both negative metacognitive beliefs about repetitive negative thinking and perseverance behaviours predicted anxiety and depression; however, negative metacognitive beliefs were the strongest predictor, in both cases.
The results provided support for current metacognitive models, in that the interpretation of cognitive perseveration sequentially influences psychopathology, but also provided insight into the inclusion of perseveration behaviours. Furthermore, the findings may also have value in a clinical setting, as targeting metacognitive beliefs in the presence of perseverance type behaviours may prove beneficial for treatment.
Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) is both grounded in quantum physics and suitable for direct simulation of thousands of atoms. This article describes the application of OFDFT for materials research over roughly the past two decades, highlighting computational studies that would have been impractical (or impossible) to perform with other techniques. In particular, we review the growing body of simulations of solids and liquids that have been conducted with planewave-pseudopotential (or related) techniques. We also provide an updated account of the fundamentals of OFDFT, emphasizing aspects—such as nonlocal density functionals for computing the kinetic energy of noninteracting electrons—that enabled much of the application work. The article concludes with a discussion of the OFDFT frontier, which contains brief descriptions of other topics at the forefront of OFDFT research.
Few trials have compared psychosocial therapies for people with bipolar affective disorder, and conventional meta-analyses provided limited comparisons between therapies.
To combine evidence for the efficacy of psychosocial interventions used as adjunctive treatment of bipolar disorder in adults, using network meta-analysis (NMA).
Systematic review identified studies and NMA was used to pool data on relapse to mania or depression, medication adherence, and symptom scales for mania, depression and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF).
Carer-focused interventions significantly reduced the risk of depressive or manic relapse. Psychoeducation alone and in combination with cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) significantly reduced medication non-adherence. Psychoeducation plus CBT significantly reduced manic symptoms and increased GAF. No intervention was associated with a significant reduction in depression symptom scale scores.
Only interventions for family members affected relapse rates. Psychoeducation plus CBT reduced medication non-adherence, improved mania symptoms and GAF. Novel methods for addressing depressive symptoms are required.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) efficiently generate electricity, but high operating temperatures (Top > 800 °C) limit their utility. Reducing Top requires mixed ion–electron conducting (MIEC) cathode materials. Density functional theory is used here to investigate the role of potassium substitutions in the MIEC material Sr1−xKxFeO3 (SKFO). We predict that such substitutions are endothermic. SrFeO3 and SKFO have nearly identical metallic electronic structures. Oxygen vacancy formation energies decrease by ~0.2 eV when xK increases from 0 to 0.0625. SKFO is a promising SOFC MIEC cathode material; however, further experimental investigations must assess its long-term stability at the desired operating temperatures.
People with callous–unemotional traits and also those with autism
spectrum disorder (ASD) display sociocognitive difficulties. However, the
frequency and neurocognitive correlates of callous–unemotional traits
within individuals with ASD are unknown.
To determine the prevalence of callous–unemotional traits in individuals
with ASD and test their association with behavioural and cognitive
Parents of 92 adolescents with ASD completed the Antisocial Processes
Screening Device (APSD) for callous–unemotional traits. Adolescents
participated in tasks of emotion recognition, theory of mind and
In total 51% (n = 47) scored above a cut-off expected to
identify the top 6% on the APSD. Of these 17% (n = 8)
had concurrent conduct problems. Regression analyses found
callous–unemotional traits were associated with specific impairment in
fear recognition but not with theory of mind or cognitive
Adolescents with ASD show high rates of callous–unemotional traits but,
unlike in the general population, these are not strongly associated with
conduct problems. The relationship of callous–unemotional traits to
impairments in fear recognition suggests similar affective difficulties
as in individuals with callous–unemotional traits without ASD.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are attractive for clean and efficient electricity generation, but high operating temperatures (Top > 800 °C) limit their widespread usage. Oxygen ion conducting cathode materials (mixed ion-electron conductors, MIECs), such as La1−xSrxCo1−yFeyO3 (LSCF), enable lower Top by reducing cathode polarization losses. Understanding how composition affects oxygen diffusion in LaFeO3 is vitally important for designing high-performance LSCF cathodes. To do this, we employ first-principles density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) calculations to show how lanthanum vacancies in LaFeO3 dramatically change the oxygen diffusion coefficient. Our ab initio results show that A-site substoichiometry is a viable route to increased oxygen diffusion and higher SOFC performance.
Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) is a quantum mechanical method in which the energy of a material depends only on the electron density and ionic positions. We examine some popular algorithms for optimizing the electron density distribution in OFDFT, explaining their suitability, benchmarking their performance, and suggesting some improvements. We start by describing the constrained optimization problem that encompasses electron density optimization. Next, we discuss the line search (including Wolfe conditions) and the nonlinear conjugate gradient and truncated Newton algorithms, as implemented in our open source OFDFT code. We finally focus on preconditioners derived from OFDFT energy functionals. Newly-derived preconditioners are successful for simulation cells of all sizes without regions of low electron-density and for small simulation cells with such regions.
Understanding the interaction between atomic hydrogen and solid tungsten is important for the development of fusion reactors in which proposed tungsten walls would be bombarded with high energy particles including hydrogen isotopes. Here, we report results from periodic density-functional theory calculations for three crucial aspects of this interaction: surface-to-subsurface diffusion of H into W, trapping of H at vacancies, and H-enhanced decohesion, with a view to assess the likely extent of hydrogen isotope incorporation into tungsten reactor walls. We find energy barriers of (at least) 2.08 eV and 1.77 eV for H uptake (inward diffusion) into W(001) and W(110) surfaces, respectively, along with very small barriers for the reverse process (outward diffusion). Although H dissolution in defect-free bulk W is predicted to be endothermic, vacancies in bulk W are predicted to exothermically trap multiple H atoms. Furthermore, adsorbed hydrogen is predicted to greatly stabilize W surfaces such that decohesion (fracture) may result from high local H concentrations.
Infants with congenitally malformed hearts who require early open-heart surgery are at high risk for developmental, psychosocial, and academic difficulties. Our objective was to describe the pattern of use of educational supports and rehabilitation services in these children at early school age.
Parents of children who participated in a prospective study of developmental progress following open-surgery were contacted to participate in a telephone survey. The questionnaire included questions regarding current educational and rehabilitation resources their child was receiving, as well as the needs perceived by the parents for services, and obstacles to accessing services.
The survey was completed by 60 families, the mean age of the children being 8.1 years, with standard deviation of 1.1 years. Of the children, 22% received educational supports, which primarily included supplemental tutoring. Rehabilitation services were received by 23%, speech therapy for 9 children, psychologic support for 6, occupational therapy for 3, and physical therapy for 1. Children receiving these services were significantly more likely to have had low developmental scores in the expected domains, when compared to those not receiving services. The majority of developmentally delayed children were not receiving adequate, if any, resource support. Medical and surgical history was not associated with greater likelihood of receipt of services.
Children with congenitally malformed hearts who are now of school age are at risk for developmental challenges and academic difficulties, yet many do not receive services to optimize performance. Modification of current practice to include systematic, periodic screening, as well as the availability of a resource person for information and referral, may be warranted to meet the ongoing needs of these children and their families, and to optimize their health and well-being.
Using periodic density-functional theory (DFT), we investigated the structure and cohesive properties of the α-alumina Σ11 tilt grain boundary, with and without segregated elements, as a model for the thermally grown oxide in jet engine thermal barrier coatings. We identified a new low-energy structure different from what was proposed previously based on electron microscopy and classical potential simulations. We explored the structure and energy landscape at the grain boundary for segregated Al, O, and early transition metals (TMs) Y and Hf. We predict that the TMs preferentially adsorb at the same sites as Al, while some adsites favored by O remain unblocked by TMs. All segregated atoms have a limited effect on grain boundary adhesion, suggesting that adhesion energies alone cannot be used for predictions of creep inhibition. These findings provide some new insights into how TM dopants affect alumina growth and creep kinetics.
The interface of quantum mechanics methods with classical atomistic simulation techniques, such as molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo, continues to be an area of considerable promise and interest. Such coupled quantum–atomistic approaches have been developed and employed, for example, to gain a comprehensive understanding of the energetics, kinetics, and dynamics of chemical processes involving surfaces and interfaces of hard materials. More recently, it has become possible to directly couple first-principles electronic structure techniques to continuum solid mechanics, either on the fly with feedback between length scales or by information passing between length scales. We discuss, with tutorial examples, the merging of quantum mechanics with molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, as well as quantum–continuum coupled techniques. We illustrate the opportunities offered by incorporation of information from quantum mechanics (reducing assumptions in higher length-scale models) and outline the challenges associated with achieving full predictive capability for the behavior of materials.
What is the relationship between language and community in early modern Europe? How is language ‘discovered’ during this time and what are the tensions and changes in community wrought with and by this discovery? These are the questions that Peter Burke's Languages and Communities in Early Modern Europe asks as he brings much needed attention to the distinctive role of language in both expressing and constituting community and vice versa in the early modern period. Burke's work is structured around five thematic trends embedded in a historical framework: (1) the continued importance of Latin, (2) vernaculars competing for dominance in newly available domains, (3) standardization before ‘language policy,’ (4) the centripetal force of language mixing, and (5) the centrifugal force of language purism. All of these prefigured the new link between language and nation that developed from the French Revolution onwards. By engaging with the multiple and inter-animated languages and communities of Europe during this time, Burke provides a counterpoint to national(ist) histories, which create a simplified picture of the organic growth of a single language and claim an isomorphic relationship with community as (proto-)nation. Burke focuses on the standardization of vernaculars in tension with increased codification of Latin and a new linguistic purism reacting to an increase in and even celebration of language mixing, and thereby resists subordinating complexity to a historical narrative.
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