For purposes of mass-rearing fruit flies, nutrient intake through artificial diets is a challenge, artificial food content and processing should promote sufficient absorption and availability to ensure fly fitness. Bulking agents play an essential role in creating a quality diet, but its physical characteristics, such as particle size, may establish a better microenvironment for feeding and development. Currently, there is a lack of information about protein metabolism in mass-reared fruit flies. Therefore, we evaluated whether the particle size of the bulking agent affects the absorption and excretion of the proteins, as well as their effect on the life-history traits of Anastrepha obliqua. We determined the protein content of hemolymph and feces, as well as the presence of nitrogen end-products as indicators of their level of absorption in a diet elaborated with coarse and fine corn cob particles as a bulking agent. The bromatological composition showed that coarse particles increased the bioavailability and content of crude, digestible, and soluble protein for the diet and hemolymph protein of larvae alike. We found an inverse relationship between the protein content of the hemolymph and feces of the larvae. Ammonium was determined to be a product of the catabolism of proteins. Also, A. obliqua improved its development (yield and pupal weight) and fitness (adult emergence and flight ability) when larvae were reared on a coarse particle diet. In conclusion, a diet elaborated with a coarse bulking agent features increased protein bioavailability and nutritional quality, which, in turn, increases the life-history traits of A. obliqua.