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Recent research supports the importance of PUFA intake in children, particularly of EPA and DHA; however, few verified methods to assess whether PUFA intake is adequate are available.
We assessed the correlation between serum PUFA and lipid concentrations with seafood and PUFA intake measured using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children (BDHQ3y).
Single centre birth cohort in Japan.
A total of 152 36-month-old Japanese children.
Average dietary intake of daily seafood, EPA and DHA was 13·83 (sd 10·36) g, 49·4 (sd 43·5) mg and 98·3 (sd 64·6) mg, respectively. Significant weak-to-moderate correlations were observed between dietary intake and serum EPA (Spearman rho = 0·41, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·44, P < 0·001); DHA (Spearman rho = 0·40, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·42, P < 0·001) and AA (arachidonic acid) (Spearman rho = 0·33, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·32, P < 0·001), whereas no significant correlation was observed for dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) (Spearman rho = 0·06, P = 0·484; Pearson r = 0·07, P = 0·387). Correlations between seafood intake and serum EPA and DHA were also moderate (0·39–0·43). A negative correlation between serum TAGs and serum EPA, as well as positive correlations between serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) with serum EPA and DHA were observed, whereas no significant correlations between seafood intake and serum lipid profiles. Based on this model, we estimated 61–98 g/week of seafood intake is required to meet current EPA/DHA intake recommendations by the WHO (100–150 mg/d).
For children of 2–4 years of age, weekly intake of 61–98 g of seafood is required to meet WHO recommendations of EPA/DHA intake.
Current guidelines provide a universal recommendation on vitamin D intake to prevent insufficiency. However, the relative influence of food, UVB and other factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency has been poorly investigated in preschool children. We assessed serum 25(OH)D quantities and their association with vitamin D intake using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for children aged 3–6 years (BDHQ3y), outdoor playing time and background UVB radiation level among 574 36-month-old Japanese children living at latitude 35°N. The average serum 25(OH)D concentration was 23·5 (sd 6·1) ng/ml, and 170 (29·6 %) children had vitamin D insufficiency (<20 ng/ml) despite high consumption of fish. Multiple logistic regression adjusting for social factors showed that when background UVB radiation level was <15 kJ/m2 (monthly average), there was a 1·89 (95 % CI 1·31, 2·74) times higher risk of vitamin D insufficiency, to which vitamin D intake nor time spent outdoors were significantly associated. ANOVA showed that the contribution of the variability in vitamin D intake on the variability of serum 25(OH)D level was 1·8 % of that of UVB exposure. The correlation between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D level was not stronger when limited to measurements in winter. We found that nearly 30 % of 3-year-old Japanese children had vitamin D insufficiency despite high consumption of fish and living at relatively low latitude. We failed to observe an association between vitamin D intake and the risk of vitamin D insufficiency. This may be due to the extremely limited access to vitamin D-fortified food and supplements for children in Japan.
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