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To measure change in price of food groups over time (1995–2030) in Brazil, considering the Brazilian Dietary Guidelines’ recommendations.
Data from the Household Budget Survey (2008–2009 HBS) and the National System of Consumer Price Indexes (NSCPI) were used to create a data set containing monthly prices for the foods and beverages most consumed in the country (n 102), from January 1995 to December 2017. Data on price of foods and beverages from 2008–2009 HBS (referring to January 2009) were used to calculate real price over time using the monthly variation in prices from NSCPI. All prices were deflated to December 2017. Foods and beverages were classified following the Brazilian Dietary Guidelines’ recommendations. The monthly price for each food group and subgroup was used to analyse changes in prices from 1995 to 2017 and to forecast prices up to 2030 using fractional polynomial models.
National estimates of foods and beverages purchased for Brazil.
In 1995, ultra-processed foods were the most expensive group (R$ 6·51/kg), followed by processed foods (R$ 6·44/kg), then unprocessed or minimally processed foods and culinary ingredients (R$ 3·45/kg). Since the early 2000s, the price of ultra-processed foods underwent successive reductions, becoming cheaper than processed foods and reducing the distance between it and the price of the other group. Forecasts indicate that unhealthy foods will become cheaper than healthy foods in 2026.
Food prices in Brazil have changed unfavourably considering the Brazilian Dietary Guidelines’ recommendations. This may imply a decrease in the quality of the population’s diet.
To analyse trends in sweetened beverages consumption among adults in Brazil between 2007 and 2016.
A time-series analysis, with data from the Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL). The prevalence of regular consumption (≥5 d/week), the average daily consumption (millilitres) and the prevalence of non-consumption of these beverages were analysed. The temporal variations of the indicators were calculated by linear regression. The analyses were performed for the complete set of the evaluated population and stratified by sociodemographic characteristics.
Brazilian capitals and Federal District.
Brazilian adults aged ≥18 years (n 519 641).
There was a reduction in both regular and average daily consumption of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages (−1·28 percentage points (pp)/year, P=0·001 and −9·63 ml/year, P=0·001, respectively). The same result regarding regular consumption was found when only sugar-sweetened beverages were analysed (−1·11 pp/year, P=0·011). Similar trends were identified in the stratified analyses, with a greater magnitude of reduction among males, young adults, those with higher schooling and residents of more developed regions. Coincidentally, there was an increase in the prevalence of adults who did not consume sweetened beverages (1·54 pp/year, P=0·005).
The consumption of sweetened beverages decreased during the period. However, a significant portion of the population still referred a daily consumption of these beverages.
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