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Polyphenols have been described to have a wide range of biological activities, and many reports, published during recent years, have highlighted the beneficial effects of phenolic compounds, illustrating their promising role as therapeutic tools in several acute and chronic disorders. The purpose of study was to evaluate, in an already-assessed model of lung injury caused by bleomycin (BLM) administration, the role of resveratrol and quercetin, as well as to explore the potential beneficial properties of a mango leaf extract, rich in mangiferin, and a grape leaf extract, rich in dihydroquercetin (DHQ), on the same model. Mice were subjected to intra-tracheal administration of BLM, and polyphenols were administered by oral route immediately after BLM instillation and daily for 7 d. Treatment with resveratrol, mangiferin, quercetin and DHQ inhibited oedema formation and body weight loss, as well as ameliorated polymorphonuclear infiltration into the lung tissue and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, polyphenols suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and prevented oxidative and nitroxidative lung injury, as shown by the reduced nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase levels. The degree of apoptosis, as evaluated by Bid and Bcl-2 balance, was also suppressed after polyphenol treatment. Finally, these natural products down-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylated expression and reduced NF-κBp65 translocation. Our findings confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol and quercetin in BLM-induced lung damage, and highlight, for the first time, the protective properties of exogenous administration of mangiferin and DHQ on experimental pulmonary fibrosis.
Ion implantation process was used to fabricate ultra-thin conducting films in inert polymers and to tailor the surface electrical properties for strain gauge applications. To this aim, polycarbonate substrates were irradiated at room temperature with low energy Cu+ ions of 60 keV at 1 μA/cm2 and with doses ranging from 1×1016 to 1×1017 ions/cm2. XRD and TEM measurements on the nanocomposite surfaces demonstrated the spontaneous precipitation of Cu nanocrystals at 1×1016 ions/cm2 fluence. These nanocrystals were located at about 50 nm - 80 nm below the polymer surface in accordance with TRIM calculations. Optical absorption spectra exhibited a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 2 eV, in accordance with the formation of Cu nanoparticles. For doses of 5×1016 ions/cm2 the formation of a continuous nanocrystalline Cu subsurface film occurred and a well pronounced SPR peak was observed. Otherwise, for higher doses (1×1017 ions/cm2) a damaged and structurally disordered film was obtained and the SPR peak was smeared out. Electrical conductivity measurements clearly indicated a reduced electrical resistance for the samples implanted with a doses up to 5×1016 ions/cm2, whereas higher doses (1×1017 ions/cm2) resulted detrimental for the electrical properties, probably due to the radiation induced damage. The dependence of electrical resistance from surface load was evaluated during compression tests up to 3 MPa. A significant linear variation of the electrical resistance with the surface load was found and could be related to the changes in the spatial distribution of nanoparticles inside the copper film.
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