To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To assess racial/ethnic differences in the diet in young children and the explanatory role of maternal BMI, immigrant status and perception of child's weight.
Among white, black and Hispanic 3-year-olds, we used negative binomial and linear regression to examine associations of race/ethnicity with foods and nutrients assessed by a validated FFQ.
Project Viva, Boston (MA), USA.
Children aged 3 years (n 898).
Mean age was 38·3 (sd 2·8) months; 464 (52 %) were boys and 127 mothers (14 %) were immigrants. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, black and Hispanic children (v. white) had a higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (rate ratio (RR) = 2·59 (95 % CI 1·95, 3·48) and RR = 1·59 (95 % CI 1·07, 2·47), respectively) and lower intakes of skimmed/1 % milk (RR = 0·42 (95 % CI 0·33, 0·53) and RR = 0·43 (95 % CI 0·31, 0·61), respectively) and trans-fat (−0·10 (95 % CI −0·18, −0·03) % of energy and −0·15 (95 % CI −0·26, −0·04) % of energy, respectively). Among Hispanics only, a lower intake of snack food (RR = 0·83 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·98)) was found and among blacks only, a higher intake of fast food (RR = 1·28 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·55)) and lower intakes of saturated fat (−0·86 (95 % CI −1·48, −0·23) % of energy), dietary fibre (0·85 (95 % CI 0·08, 1·62) g/d) and Ca (−120 (95 % CI −175, −65) mg/d) were found. Being born outside the USA was associated with more healthful nutrient intakes and less fast food.
Three-year-old black and Hispanic (v. white) children ate more sugar-sweetened beverages and less low-fat dairy. Total energy intake was substantially higher in Hispanic children. Snack food (Hispanic children) and fat intakes (black children) tended to be lower. Children of immigrants ate less fast food and bad fats and more fibre.
The purpose of the present study was to assess the nutritional quality of foods and beverages listed on menus serving children in government-sponsored child-care centres throughout Mexico.
For this cross-sectional menu assessment, we compared (i) food groups and portion sizes of foods and beverages on the menus with MyPlate recommendations and (ii) macronutrients, sugar and fibre with Daily Reference Intake standards.
Menus reflected foods and beverages served to children attending one of 142 government-sponsored child-care centres throughout Mexico.
There were fifty-four distinct menus for children aged 4–6 months, 7–9 months, 10–12 months, 13–23 months, 24–47 months and 48–72 months.
Menus included a variety of foods meeting minimum MyPlate recommendations for each food category except whole grains for children aged 48–72 months. Menus listed excessive amounts of high-energy beverages, including full-fat milk, fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverages for children of all ages. The mean daily energy content of menu items yielded an average of 2·76 MJ for infants, 4·77 MJ for children aged 13–23 months, 5·36 MJ for children aged 24–47 months and 5·87 MJ for children aged 48–72 months. Foods and beverages on menus provided sufficient grams of carbohydrate and fat, but excessive protein.
Menus provided a variety of foods but excessive energy. Whole grains were limited, and high-energy beverages were prevalent. Both may be appropriate targets for nutrition intervention. Future studies should move beyond menus and assess what children actually consume in child care.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.