To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium in drinking water
may have a protective effect on suicide mortality.
To evaluate the association between local lithium levels in drinking
water and suicide mortality at district level in Austria.
A nationwide sample of 6460 lithium measurements was examined for
association with suicide rates per 100 000 population and suicide
standardised mortality ratios across all 99 Austrian districts.
Multivariate regression models were adjusted for well-known socioeconomic
factors known to influence suicide mortality in Austria (population
density, per capita income, proportion of Roman Catholics, as well as the
availability of mental health service providers). Sensitivity analyses
and weighted least squares regression were used to challenge the
robustness of the results.
The overall suicide rate (R2 = 0.15, β =–0.39,
t =–4.14, P = 0.000073) as well as
the suicide mortality ratio (R2 = 0.17, β =–0.41,
t =–4.38, P = 0.000030) were
inversely associated with lithium levels in drinking water and remained
significant after sensitivity analyses and adjustment for socioeconomic
In replicating and extending previous results, this study provides strong
evidence that geographic regions with higher natural lithium
concentrations in drinking water are associated with lower suicide
Media reporting of suicide has repeatedly been shown to trigger suicidal behaviour. Few studies have investigated the associations between specific media content and suicide rates. Even less is known about the possible preventive effects of suicide-related media content.
To test the hypotheses that certain media content is associated with an increase in suicide, suggesting a so-called Werther effect, and that other content is associated with a decrease in suicide, conceptualised as a Papageno effect. Further, to identify classes of media articles with similar reporting profiles and to test for associations between these classes and suicide.
Content analysis and latent class analysis (LCA) of 497 suicide-related print media reports published in Austria between 1 January and 30 June 2005. Ecological study to identify associations between media item content and short-term changes in suicide rates.
Repetitive reporting of the same suicide and the reporting of suicide myths were positively associated with suicide rates. Coverage of individual suicidal ideation not accompanied by suicidal behaviour was negatively associated with suicide rates. The LCA yielded four classes of media reports, of which the mastery of crisis class (articles on individuals who adopted coping strategies other than suicidal behaviour in adverse circumstances) was negatively associated with suicide, whereas the expert opinion class and the epidemiological facts class were positively associated with suicide.
The impact of suicide reporting may not be restricted to harmful effects; rather, coverage of positive coping in adverse circumstances, as covered in media items about suicidal ideation, may have protective effects.
The availability of firearms in homes and at aggregate levels is a risk factor for suicide and homicide. One method of reducing access to suicidal means is the restriction of firearm availability through more stringent legislation.
To evaluate the impact of firearm legislation reform on firearm suicides and homicides as well as on the availability of firearms in Austria.
Official statistics on suicides, firearm homicides and firearm licences issued from 1985 to 2005 were examined. To assess the effect of the new firearm law, enacted in 1997, linear regression and Poisson regressions were performed using data from before and after the law reform.
The rate of firearm suicides among some age groups, percentage of firearm suicides, as well as the rate of firearm homicides and the rate of firearm licences, significantly decreased after a more stringent firearm law had been implemented.
Our findings provide evidence that the introduction of restrictive firearm legislation effectively reduced the rates of firearm suicide and homicide. The decline in firearm-related deaths seems to have been mediated by the legal restriction of firearm availability. Restrictive firearm legislation should be an integral part of national suicide prevention programmes in countries with high firearm suicide rates.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.