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The most important characteristic of a healthy diet is balance of food types, and of intake and output. Low protein intake is associated with a higher risk of bone fracture. There is controversy about whether high animal protein intake increases the risk of fractures in women. Menopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporosis, especially if they are Caucasian and/or thin. The best calcium source is dairy products. Three servings provide the recommended daily allowance of 1000 mg. With fewer women taking hormone replacement therapy, more women are looking for alternatives to control menopausal symptoms, particularly hot flashes. The type of natural product most commonly used for menopausal symptoms are phytoestrogens or plant estrogens. Eating disorders are most commonly associated with younger women: teenagers and young adults. The recommended diet for people with diabetes should contain carbohydrate, protein, and fat in reasonable proportions.
Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in women, with an incidence of 2.6%. This chapter examines the effects of the woman's hormonal environment on the development of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma, additional risk factors, and preventive measures for this common malignancy. When hormonetherapy consisted of unopposed estrogen, a higher incidence of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma was found in women on this therapy compared with non-treated women. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials found unopposed estrogen therapy in moderate to high doses to be associated with significant increases in rates of endometrial hyperplasia. The risk of endometrial carcinoma in complex atypical hyperplasia is approximately 25%, and warrants surgical management with hysterectomy and salpingoophorectomy. The accuracy of endometrial biopsy as compared with dilation and curettage in detection of endometrial carcinoma ranges from 91 to 99.6% with sampling devices such as the Pipelle.