Primates are important seed dispersers in natural ecosystems and agro-ecosystems, but the latter scenario remains under-studied. The degree to which primates favour plant regeneration greatly depends on post-dispersal processes. The main objective of this study was to compare patterns of seed/seedling fate and seedling recruitment in two habitats of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra Lawrence 1933), rustic cocoa and rain forest, and two types of seed-deposition locations, monkey latrines and control locations. Field experiments were carried out within the non-overlapping home ranges of six monkey groups, three in cocoa and three in forest. Seed and seedling fates were assessed for one focal tree species, Brosimum lactescens. The probabilities of seed survival (0.52), germination (0.72), seedling establishment (0.73) and early seedling survival (0.38) were not affected by habitat or seed-deposition location. Late seedling survival was similar in the two habitats but was higher in control locations (0.22) than in latrines (0.09). In cocoa, 4641 seedlings of 59 species were recorded, in forest 3280 seedlings of 68 species. Seedling recruitment was similar in both habitats, but latrines had higher densities than control locations. The importance of agro-ecosystems with low management intensity for the maintenance of ecological processes in anthropogenic landscapes is discussed.