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Public health strategies have focused largely on physical health. However, there is increasing recognition that raising mental health awareness and tackling stigma is crucial to reduce disease burden. National campaigns have had some success but tackling issues locally is particularly important.
To assess the public's awareness and perception of the monthly BBC Cornwall mental health phone-in programmes that have run for 8.5 years in Cornwall, UK (population 530 000).
A consultation, review and feedback process involving a multiagency forum of mental and public health professionals, people with lived experience and local National Health Service trust's media team was used to develop a brief questionnaire. This was offered to all attendees at two local pharmacies covering populations of 27 000 over a 2-week period.
In total, 14% (95% CI 11.9–16.5) were aware of the radio show, 11% (95% CI 9.0–13.1) have listened and the majority (76%) of those who listened did so more than once. The estimated reach is 70 000 people in the local population, of whom approximately 60 000 listen regularly. The show is highly valued among respondents with modal and median scores of 4 out of 5.
Local radio is a successful, cost-effective and impactful way to reach a significant proportion of the population and likely to raise awareness, reduce stigma and be well received. The format has been adopted in other regions thus demonstrating easy transferability. It could form an essential part of a public health strategy to improve a population's mental well-being.
Declaration of interest
W.H. received support from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for the South West Peninsula UK. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. L.R. and D.S. were involved in delivering the programmes but had no role in their evaluation.
The electricity sector is transforming quickly, and there is a need to understand the technical, economic, and policy implications. Energy storage will play an important role in the new grid.
In the MISO region, the Midwest, and in Minnesota, there are many opportunities and policy questions being explored around energy storage.
The electricity grid in the United States is transforming quickly and dramatically. Energy storage will play an important role in this newly designed grid, serving many functions that support a more flexible, highly renewable, and more resilient grid with declining fossil generating plants. The particular role of energy storage in the Midwest, and in Minnesota as a Midwest case study, is described, with a detailed analysis of selected energy storage use cases. The FERC Order 841 and the challenges and opportunities for energy storage in the Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) region are summarized.
Optimism and pessimism are distinct constructs that have demonstrated independent relationships with aspects of health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether optimism or pessimism is more closely linked with physical and mental health among older adults.
Community-dwelling older adults (N = 272) ages 59–95 in the southern United States.
The Life Orientation Test—Revised and the Short Form 8.
At the bivariate level, optimism was associated with higher physical health and mental health, while pessimism was associated with lower physical health and mental health. Multiple-regression analyses as well as comparison of correlation coefficients found that pessimism was more closely associated with physical health and mental health than optimism.
These results add to the literature suggesting that, in terms of older adults’ health and well-being, avoiding pessimism may be more important than being optimistic.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The primary goal of the project was to conduct a narrative review of the published literature to identify and summarize best practices for developing oncology-focused research and training experiences for AI/AN undergraduate, graduate and professional students. A secondary goal was to identify methodological limitations and areas for future research related to rigorous educational program evaluation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION:. Published literature was searched using databases relevant to oncology (PubMed, Web of Science) and sociology (PsychINFO, SocIndex). The bibliographies of identified relevant papers were searched for additional references by title. Search terms included synonyms and commonly used terms for three general areas: (1) target population (e.g., American Indian), (2) training area (e.g., oncology), and (3) educational program (e.g., undergraduate). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS:. A current total of 107 original publications and 33 review papers that are relevant to the project goals have been identified. Key areas of program development and implementation relate to advertising and recruitment; didactic curriculum in research methods, cancer health disparities, and professional development and career planning; research immersion experiences through shadowing, networking, application of research skills, and opportunities to develop oral and written communication skills; ongoing career development support; mentoring by faculty, advanced trainees, and peers; and culture-specific enrichment. Important areas for program evaluation relate to measures of reaction, knowledge, practice and long-term outcomes. Evaluation design approaches include observational and experimental designs with recommendations for identifying relevant control groups. Strategies to ensure complete long-term follow-up are also summarized. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT:.Successful programs address barriers related to perceived lack of abilities, lack of AI role models, limited culture-specific enrichment, and limited mentoring and ongoing career development support. Program directors should work with local tribal and community leaders when creating a new program. A high degree of coordination is needed to create a bicultural program to interest students in a research career and avoid the creation of barriers hidden to the program director. There are opportunities to improve the rigor of educational program evaluation in this setting by including measures beyond self-reported reaction and knowledge to focus on educational program enrollment and completion and long-term career outcomes. Methodologic challenges include identification of relevant control groups for comparison and the use of experimental designs.
Building on our earlier analysis of the factorial structure of bilingualism for young adults obtained from the Language and Social Background Questionnaire (LSBQ; Anderson, Mak, Keyvani Chahi & Bialystok, 2018), we analyzed responses from 675 children and 125 older adults to a similar questionnaire. Three factors accounting for 74% of the variance emerged in the analysis of children's responses: Adult Language in the Home, Non-English use for Media, Non-English use with Siblings. There were also three factors that explained the responses of older adults that accounted for 79% of the variance: Non-English Use, Non-English Proficiency, and English Proficiency. Therefore, bilingual experience is captured by different factors at different points in the lifespan. These results are discussed in conjunction with the earlier results from young adults and the implications for understanding bilingualism across the lifespan.
Many women experience both vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS) and depressed mood at midlife, but little is known regarding the prospective bi-directional relationships between VMS and depressed mood and the role of sleep difficulties in both directions.
A pooled analysis was conducted using data from 21 312 women (median: 50 years, interquartile range 49−51) in eight studies from the InterLACE consortium. The degree of VMS, sleep difficulties, and depressed mood was self-reported and categorised as never, rarely, sometimes, and often (if reporting frequency) or never, mild, moderate, and severe (if reporting severity). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the bi-directional associations adjusted for within-study correlation.
At baseline, the prevalence of VMS (40%, range 13–62%) and depressed mood (26%, 8–41%) varied substantially across studies, and a strong dose-dependent association between VMS and likelihood of depressed mood was found. Over 3 years of follow-up, women with often/severe VMS at baseline were more likely to have subsequent depressed mood compared with those without VMS (odds ratios (OR) 1.56, 1.27–1.92). Women with often/severe depressed mood at baseline were also more likely to have subsequent VMS than those without depressed mood (OR 1.89, 1.47–2.44). With further adjustment for the degree of sleep difficulties at baseline, the OR of having a subsequent depressed mood associated with often/severe VMS was attenuated and no longer significant (OR 1.13, 0.90–1.40). Conversely, often/severe depressed mood remained significantly associated with subsequent VMS (OR 1.80, 1.38–2.34).
Difficulty in sleeping largely explained the relationship between VMS and subsequent depressed mood, but it had little impact on the relationship between depressed mood and subsequent VMS.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of BMP4 on activation, development and mRNA expression of GDF9, BMP15, PCNA, Bax and Bcl2 in cultured bovine follicles enclosed in ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue fragments were cultured for 6 days in α-MEM+ alone or supplemented with different concentrations of BMP4 (10, 50 or 100 ng/ml). Classical histology was performed to analyze follicle growth and morphology, while real-time PCR was used to analyze mRNA levels in fresh and cultured tissues. After 6 days, the culture of ovarian tissue in α-MEM+ alone or supplemented with 10, 50 or 100 ng/ml BMP4 promoted follicular activation. The different concentrations of BMP4 maintained the percentage of normal follicles similar to results of the control. The presence of 100 ng/ml BMP-4 in culture medium increased oocyte and follicular diameters of primary and secondary follicles when compared with those follicles from uncultured control or cultured in α-MEM+ alone (P < 0.05). The tissues cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of BMP4 had an increase in mRNA expression of the tested genes, but despite this the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, 100 ng/ml BMP4 promotes an increase in diameters of follicles and oocytes of primary and secondary follicles after 6 days of in vitro culture.
This study aims to investigate the effects of jacalin and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on activation and survival of goat primordial follicles, as well as on gene expression in cultured ovarian tissue. Ovarian fragments were cultured for 6 days in minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with jacalin (10, 25, 50 or 100 μg/ml – Experiment 1) or in MEM supplemented with jacalin (50 μg/ml), FSH (50 ng/ml) or both (Experiment 2). Non-cultured and cultured tissues were processed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. Cultured tissues from Experiment 2 were also stored to evaluate the expression of BMP-15, KL (Kit ligand), c-kit, GDF-9 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results of Experiment 1 showed that, compared with tissue that was cultured in control medium, the presence of 50 μg/ml of jacalin increased both the percentages of developing follicles and viability. In Experiment 2, after 6 days, higher percentages of normal follicles were observed in tissue cultured in presence of FSH, jacalin or both, but no synergistic interaction between FSH and jacalin was observed. These substances had no significant effect on the levels of mRNA for BMP-15 and KL, but FSH increased significantly the levels of mRNA for PCNA and c-kit. On the other hand, jacalin reduced the levels of mRNA for GDF-9. In conclusion, jacalin and FSH are able to improve primordial follicle activation and survival after 6 days of culture. Furthermore, presence of FSH increases the expression of mRNA for PCNA and c-kit, but jacalin resulted in lower GDF-9 mRNA expression.
Male dairy calves may be transported from their farm of origin at a young age. This process may involve an extended period off feed and indirect consignment through an intermediate facility, prompting potential welfare concerns. To assess the impact of transport, 59 male Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (5–9 d old) were either (1) held in situ on farm (control); (2) transported for 6 h; (3) transported for 12 h; or (4) transported for 1 h to a holding facility where they were kept for 6 h and then transported for 5 h. All treatments included a 30-h period of feed (milk) withdrawal, and calf responses were measured over time from before their last feed until the completion of the study after the transport and feed withdrawal periods. Apart from increases in serum creatine kinase in calves transported for 12 h, transported calves generally did not differ in blood concentrations of glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, total protein or in packed cell volume, compared with controls (P>0·05). Calf responses to the indirect consignment treatment did not differ from those of other transported calves. Withdrawal of feed for 30 h caused calves to lose 6% of body weight; blood glucose varied from 3·96 mmol/l immediately before daily feeding to 5·46 mmol/l at 3 h post feeding, and then declined to 3·43 mmol/l at 30 h. Calves lay down for 22–32% of the time during transport, and did not show a rebound effect in lying behaviour post arrival in comparison with controls. Best practice transport of 6–12 h duration, including indirect consignment via a holding facility, did not significantly affect calf blood biochemistry and metabolism in comparison with untransported animals. However, extending the time off feed beyond the daily feeding interval resulted in reduced blood glucose concentrations, suggesting that time off feed needs to be carefully managed in young transported dairy calves.
Hunger continues to be one of humanity's greatest challenges despite the existence of a more-than-adequate global food supply equal to 2,800 kilocalories for every person every day. In measuring progress, policy-makers and concerned citizens across the globe rely on information supplied by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), an agency of the United Nations. In 2010 the FAO reported that in the wake of the 2007–2008 food-price spikes and global economic crisis, the number of people experiencing hunger worldwide since 2005–2007 had increased by 150 million, rising above 1 billion in 2009. However, in its State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012 (SOFI 12) the FAO presented new estimates, having revamped its methods and reinterpreted its hunger data back to 1990. The revised numbers for the period 1990–1992 to 2010–2012 reverse the trend to a steadily falling one. Based on the FAO's new calculations, extreme undernourishment peaked in 1990 at a record-breaking one billion, followed by a significant decline through 2006, when progress stalled but did not reverse (see chart below).
Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are luminescent nanoparticles with size- dependent emission spectra spanning a wide range of wavelengths in the visible and near IR. This property, as well as their higher resistance to photo-degradation compared to organic dye labels, makes QDs potentially suitable for certain biomolecule tagging and multiplexing applications. We describe an electrostatic self-assembly approach for conjugating highly luminescent colloidal CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs with engineered two-domain recombinant proteins to form conjugates for sensing and imaging applications. The design, preparation, and characterization of high quantum yield IgG antibody-binding protein G bioconjugates using luminescence, electrophoretic gel shift, and affinity assays is reported.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 (basic) is a potent angiogenic molecule involved in tumor progression, and is one of several growth factors with a central role in ovarian carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FGF2 gene may alter angiogenic potential and thereby susceptibility to ovarian cancer. We analyzed 25 FGF2 tgSNPs using five independent study populations from the United States and Australia. Analysis was restricted to non-Hispanic White women with serous ovarian carcinoma (1269 cases and 2829 controls). There were no statistically significant associations between any FGF2 SNPs and ovarian cancer risk. There were two nominally statistically significant associations between heterozygosity for two FGF2 SNPs (rs308379 and rs308447; p < .05) and serous ovarian cancer risk in the combined dataset, but rare homozygous estimates did not achieve statistical significance, nor were they consistent with the log additive model of inheritance. Overall genetic variation in FGF2 does not appear to play a role in susceptibility to ovarian cancer.
We have determined the sequence and genomic organization of the genes encoding the cone visual pigment of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), and inferred their spectral properties and evolutionary pathways. We prepared platypus and echidna retinal RNA and used primers of the middle-wave-sensitive (MWS), long-wave-sensitive (LWS), and short-wave sensitive (SWS1) pigments corresponding to coding sequences that are highly conserved among mammals; to PCR amplify the corresponding pigment sequences. Amplification from the retinal RNA revealed the expression of LWS pigment mRNA that is homologous in sequence and spectral properties to the primate LWS visual pigments. However, we were unable to amplify the mammalian SWS1 pigment from these two species, indicating this gene was lost prior to the echidna-platypus divergence (∼21 MYA). Subsequently, when the platypus genome sequence became available, we found an LWS pigment gene in a conserved genomic arrangement that resembles the primate pigment, but, surprisingly we found an adjacent (∼20 kb) SWS2 pigment gene within this conserved genomic arrangement. We obtained the same result after sequencing the echidna genes. The encoded SWS2 pigment is predicted to have a wavelength of maximal absorption of about 440 nm, and is paralogous to SWS pigments typically found in reptiles, birds, and fish but not in mammals. This study suggests the locus control region (LCR) has played an important role in the conservation of photo receptor gene arrays and the control of their spatial and temporal expression in the retina in all mammals. In conclusion, a duplication event of an ancestral cone visual pigment gene, followed by sequence divergence and selection gave rise to the LWS and SWS2 visual pigments. So far, the echidna and platypus are the only mammals that share the gene structure of the LWS-SWS2 pigment gene complex with reptiles, birds and fishes.
The ongoing threat of a terrorist attack places public agencies under increasing pressure to ensure readiness in the event of a disaster. Yet, little published information exists regarding the current state of readiness, which would allow local and regional organizations to develop disaster preparedness plans that would function seamlessly across service areas. The objective of this study is to characterize state-level disaster readiness soon after September 2001 and correlate readiness with existing programs providing an organized response to medical emergencies.
During the first quarter of 2002, a cross-sectional survey assessing five components of disaster readiness was administered in all 50 states. The five components of disaster readiness included: (1) statewide disaster planning; (2) coordination; (3) training; (4) resource capacity; and (5) preparedness for biological/chemical terrorism.
Most states reported the presence of a statewide disaster plan (94%), but few are tested by activation, (48%) and still fewer contain a bioterrorism component (38%). All states have designated disaster operations centers (100%), but few states have an operating communications system linking health and medical resources (36%). Approximately half of states offer disaster training to medical professionals; about 10% of states require the training. Between 22–48% of states have various contingency plans to treat victims when service capacity is exceeded. Biochemical protective equipment for health professionals is lacking in all but one state, and only 10% of states indicate that all hospitals have decontamination capabilities. States with a functioning statewide trauma system were significantly more likely to possess key attributes of a functioning disaster readiness plan.
These findings suggest that disaster plans are prevalent among states. However, key programs and policies were noticeably absent. Communication systems remain fragmented and adequate training programs and protective equipment for health personnel are markedly lacking. Statewide trauma systems may provide a framework upon which to build future medical disaster readiness capacity.
This study investigated particle behaviour in the stagnation zone of natural and forced round impinging air jets using flow visualization, image analysis, and particle image velocimetry. The jet Reynolds number was 21000, and the nozzle to plate spacing was five diameters. Small mass loadings of glass beads with inertial time constants τp of 1.7 and 7 ms were examined. The Stokes number associated with the mean flow Stm = τpU0/D ranged from 0.6 to 2.4, and the Stokes number associated with vortices in the forced flow St′ = τpf ranged from 0.3 to 1.25 where f is the vortex passage frequency. Particle velocities near the wall deviated strongly from fluid velocities, resulting in rebound and non-Stokesian effects (i.e. significant particle Reynolds numbers Rep). The deceleration associated with rebounding caused long particle residence times in the stagnation zone and significant increases in particle number density above the plate. Rebound height and the height of the region of particle accumulation were well correlated and increased with Stm. Particles associated with lower Stm were accelerated in the radial direction more quickly, not only because of their decreased inertia, but also because of the larger fluid velocties encountered. Shear layer vortices produced spatial variations in particle concentration in the free jet which caused number density near the plate to fluctuate with time. The vortices had little effect on particle motion near the stagnation point, however. Only particles in the vicinity of vortex cores felt the influence of the vortex-induced velocity field. Hence, particle motion in the stagnation zone was most dependent on the mean flow (and thus Stm).
Speech addressed to children is supposed to be helpfully redundant, but redundant or predictable words addressed to adults tend to lose intelligibility. Word tokens extracted from the spontaneous speech of the parents of 12 children aged 1;10 to 3;0 and presented in isolation to adult listeners showed loss of intelligibility when the words were redundant because they had occurred in repetitions of an utterance (Experiment 1) or referred to an entity which was physically present when named (Experiment 2). Though children (N = 64; mean age 3;5, S. D. 6·1 months) recognized fewer excerpted object names than adults (N = 40), less intelligible tokens appeared to induce child listeners to rely on the word's extra-linguistic context during the recognition process (Experiment 3), much as such tokens normally induce adults to rely on discourse context. It is proposed that interpreting parental utterances with reference to non-verbal context furthers linguistic development.
Words artificially isolated from twelve parents' speech to their children (aged 1; 10–3; 0) were significantly less intelligible to adult listeners than words originally spoken to an adult. This effect holds for randomly sampled words and, to a lesser extent, for matched pairs. While parents did not adjust the clarity of word tokens to the linguistic naiveté of the child listeners, they did adjust intelligibility inversely to the observed predictability of the sampled words in their sentence contexts, and words to children proved more redundant in this sense. The relationship of these findings to other work on the clarity of motherese is examined and the implications for the study of children's speech perception outlined.
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