To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), can spread rapidly in a region. Facilities that care for high-acuity patients with long average lengths of stay (eg, long-term acute-care hospitals or LTACHs and ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities or vSNFs) may amplify this spread. We assessed the impact of interventions on CRE spread within a region individually, bundled, and implemented at different facility types. Methods: We developed a deterministic compartmental model, parametrized using CRE data reported to the NHSN and patient transfer data from the CMS specific to a US state. The model includes the community and the healthcare facilities within the state. Individuals may be either susceptible or infected and infectious. Infected patients determined to have CRE through admission screening or point-prevalence surveys at a facility are placed in a state of lower transmissibility if enhanced infection prevention and control (IPC) practices are in place. Results: Intervention bundles that included periodic point-prevalence surveys and enhanced IPC at high-acuity postacute-care facilities had the greatest impact on regional prevalence 10 years into an outbreak; the benefits of including admission screening and improved interfacility communication were more modest (Fig. 1A). Delaying interventions by 3 years is predicted to result in smaller reductions in prevalence (Fig. 1B). Increasing the frequency of point-prevalence surveys from biannually to quarterly resulted in a substantial relative reduction in prevalence (from 25% to 44%) if conducted from the start of an outbreak. IPC improvements in vSNFs resulted in greater relative reductions than in LTACHs. Admission screening at LTACHs and vSNFs was predicted to have a greater impact on prevalence if in place prior to CRE introduction (~20% reduction), and the impact decreased by approximately half if implementation was delayed until 3 years after CRE introduction. In contrast, the effect of admission screening in ACH was less (~10% reduction in prevalence) and did not change with implementation delays. Conclusions: Our model suggests that interventions that limit unrecognized MDRO introduction to, or dispersal from, LTACHs and vSNFs through screening are predicted to slow distribution regionally. Interventions to detect colonization and improve IPC practices within LTACHs and vSNFs may substantially reduce the regional burden. Prevention strategies are predicted to have the greatest impact when interventions are bundled and implemented before an MDRO is identified in a region, but reduction in overall prevalence is still possible if implemented after initial MDRO spread.
Background: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, CDC Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (DHQP) has provided technical assistance in support of state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments for COVID-19 healthcare outbreak management and infection prevention and control (IPC). We characterized the volume and trends of technical assistance provided during the pandemic to inform the future needs of health departments for COVID-19 healthcare IPC and DHQP resources required to meet these needs. Methods: In January 2020, DHQP began receiving COVID-19 IPC TA requests directly from health departments for remote assistance or from CDC staff on field deployments providing onsite support. DHQP subject-matter experts provided responses via e-mail or, for more complex inquiries, outbreaks, or field deployments, via phone consultations. Records of e-mail communications and phone consultations were entered into an inquiry database for tracking. We calculated the number, mean, and range of technical-assistance responses by jurisdiction and by month from January 2020 through December 2021. We designated months as high-volume periods for technical assistance if inquiries surpassed the 75th percentile. Results: In total, 1,869 IPC technical-assistance responses were provided. Of all technical-assistance responses, 1,725 (92%) were to state or local health departments, 115 (6%) were tribal nations, and 28 (2%) were US territories. IPC technical assistance was provided to all 50 states and the District of Columbia, 16 tribal nations, and 5 US territories. The average total number of technical assistance responses per site during the 24-month period was 34 to state and local HDs (range, 2–111), 6 to tribal nations (when tribal nation was specified; range, 1–17), and 6 to US territories (range, 1–15). E-mail communications comprised 1,164 responses (62%); phone consultations made up the remaining 705 responses (38%). Of phone consultations, 350 (50%) were with CDC field deployers providing onsite support to health departments. The average number of technical-assistance responses provided each month across all jurisdictions was 78 (range, 0–334); months with high volumes included April–August 2020 and January 2021. Conclusions: These findings highlight the high-level collaboration between federal and state, tribal, local, and territorial health department partners in remote and onsite support of COVID-19 prevention and response efforts in healthcare settings. Variations in monthly volumes of health-department COVID-19 healthcare IPC technical assistance requests may reflect factors such as fluctuations in community infection rates and changes in CDC IPC guidance. The ability to provide effective technical assistance during pandemic response depends on the CDC maintaining sufficient healthcare IPC staffing and expertise.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are endemic in the Chicago region. We assessed the regional impact of a CRE control intervention targeting high-prevalence facilities; that is, long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) and ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities (vSNFs). Methods: In July 2017, an academic–public health partnership launched a regional CRE prevention bundle: (1) identifying patient CRE status by querying Illinois’ XDRO registry and periodic point-prevalence surveys reported to public health, (2) cohorting or private rooms with contact precautions for CRE patients, (3) combining hand hygiene adherence, monitoring with general infection control education, and guidance by project coordinators and public health, and (4) daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing. Informed by epidemiology and modeling, we targeted LTACHs and vSNFs in a 13-mile radius from the coordinating center. Illinois mandates CRE reporting to the XDRO registry, which can also be manually queried or generate automated alerts to facilitate interfacility communication. The regional intervention promoted increased automation of alerts to hospitals. The prespecified primary outcome was incident clinical CRE culture reported to the XDRO registry in Cook County by month, analyzed by segmented regression modeling. A secondary outcome was colonization prevalence measured by serial point-prevalence surveys for carbapenemase-producing organism colonization in LTACHs and vSNFs. Results: All eligible LTACHs (n = 6) and vSNFs (n = 9) participated in the intervention. One vSNF declined CHG bathing. vSNFs that implemented CHG bathing typically bathed residents 2–3 times per week instead of daily. Overall, there were significant gaps in infection control practices, especially in vSNFs. Also, 75 Illinois hospitals adopted automated alerts (56 during the intervention period). Mean CRE incidence in Cook County decreased from 59.0 cases per month during baseline to 40.6 cases per month during intervention (P < .001). In a segmented regression model, there was an average reduction of 10.56 cases per month during the 24-month intervention period (P = .02) (Fig. 1), and an estimated 253 incident CRE cases were averted. Mean CRE incidence also decreased among the stratum of vSNF/LTACH intervention facilities (P = .03). However, evidence of ongoing CRE transmission, particularly in vSNFs, persisted, and CRE colonization prevalence remained high at intervention facilities (Table 1). Conclusions: A resource-intensive public health regional CRE intervention was implemented that included enhanced interfacility communication and targeted infection prevention. There was a significant decline in incident CRE clinical cases in Cook County, despite high persistent CRE colonization prevalence in intervention facilities. vSNFs, where understaffing or underresourcing were common and lengths of stay range from months to years, had a major prevalence challenge, underscoring the need for aggressive infection control improvements in these facilities.
Funding: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (SHEPheRD Contract No. 200-2011-42037)
Disclosures: M.Y.L. has received research support in the form of contributed product from OpGen and Sage Products (now part of Stryker Corporation), and has received an investigator-initiated grant from CareFusion Foundation (now part of BD).
Background: The Targeted Assessment for Prevention (TAP) strategy is a quality improvement framework created by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to facilitate the reduction of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). TAP facility assessments are a component of the TAP strategy and are completed by staff across the facility to help identify perceptions of and target infection prevention gaps. We have described the gaps most commonly reported by facilities completing TAP facility assessments for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) and central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Methods: TAP CAUTI and CLABSI assessments were completed by acute-care facilities across the nation, with CDC technical assistance, from December 2014 to August 2019. Similar questions across 2 versions of CAUTI assessments and 3 versions of CLABSI assessments were combined. Analysis was limited to facilities with ≥10 assessments. Infection prevention gaps were defined as ≥33% respondents answering Unknown, ≥33% respondents answering “no,” or ≥50% of respondents answering “no” and “unknown” or “never” and “rarely” “sometimes” “unknown.” The analysis was completed at the facility level, and the gaps most commonly reported across facilities were identified. Results: In total, 1,942 CAUTI assessments from 42 facilities in 12 states and 1,623 CLABSI assessments from 29 facilities in 11 states were included for analysis. The mean numbers of assessments per facility were 46.2 for CAUTIs and 56.0 for CLABSIs. Across both CAUTIs and CLABSIs, commonly reported perceptions about infection prevention gaps included lack of physician and nurse champions for prevention activities, failure to conduct competency assessments, and inconsistency in select device insertion practices (Fig. 1). For CAUTIs, lack of practices to facilitate timely removal of urinary catheters were also commonly reported, with one-third of facilities reporting inconsistency in use of alerts for catheter removal, 78.6% reporting lack of physician response to these alerts, and 90.5% reporting deficiencies in removing unnecessary catheters in the postanesthesia care unit. For CLABSIs, 79.3% of facilities reported failure to replace central lines within 48 hours after emergent insertion, and 62.1% reported that feedback was not provided to staff on central-line device utilization ratios. Conclusion: For both assessments, absence of CAUTI and CLABSI prevention champions, failure to conduct competency assessments, and inconsistency in performing device insertion practices were commonly reported across facilities. These common gaps have and will continue to inform the development of tools and resources to improve infection prevention practices as well as help to better target the implementation of interventions.