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Herbicide resistance has been studied extensively in agronomic crops across North America but is rarely examined in vegetables. It is widely assumed that the limited number of registered herbicides combined with the adoption of diverse weed management strategies in most vegetable crops effectively inhibits the development of resistance. It is difficult to determine whether resistance is truly less common in vegetable crops or whether the lack of reported cases is due to the lack of resources focused on detection. This review highlights incidences of resistance that are thought to have arisen within vegetable crops. It also includes situations in which herbicide-resistant weeds were likely selected for within agronomic crops but became a problem when vegetables were grown in sequence or in adjacent fields. Occurrence of herbicide resistance can have severe consequences for vegetable growers, and resistance management plans should be adopted to limit selection pressure. This review also highlights resistance management techniques that should slow the development and spread of herbicide resistance in vegetable crops.
Understanding the effects of crop management practices on weed survival and seed production is imperative in improving long-term weed management strategies, especially for herbicide-resistant weed populations. Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott] is an economically important weed in western North American cropping systems for many reasons, including prolific seed production and evolved resistance to numerous herbicide sites of action. Field studies were conducted in 2014 in a total of four field sites in Wyoming, Montana, and Nebraska to quantify the impact of different crop canopies and herbicide applications on B. scoparia density and seed production. Crops used in this study were spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), and corn (Zea mays L.). Herbicide treatments included either acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors effective on non-resistant B. scoparia or a non–ALS inhibiting herbicide effective for both ALS-resistant and ALS-susceptible B. scoparia. Bassia scoparia density midseason was affected more by herbicide choice than by crop canopy, whereas B. scoparia seed production per plant was affected more by crop canopy compared with herbicide treatment. Our results suggest that crop canopy and herbicide treatments were both influential on B. scoparia seed production per unit area, which is likely a key indicator of long-term management success for this annual weed species. The lowest germinable seed production per unit area was observed in spring wheat treated with non–ALS inhibiting herbicides, and the greatest germinable seed production was observed in sugar beet treated with ALS-inhibiting herbicides. The combined effects of crop canopy and herbicide treatment can minimize B. scoparia establishment and seed production.
Elder mistreatment is a surprisingly common and often misunderstood phenomenon. It causes significant pain and suffering and is especially prevalent among those who have a dementing illness. Financial abuse is one of the most common types of mistreatment and often co-exists with other types (such as emotional and/or physical abuse). Sometimes the clinician is called upon to assess capacity for financial transactions. The implications and consequences of such an assessment are significant, and it is often helpful to engage a geropsychologist or neuropsychologist to assist with an accurate determination. It is critically important for the clinician to ask about abuse and to identify high-risk situations. Once abuse is suspected, the clinician must know what the reporting requirements and options are, as these vary among states. In general, suspected abuse in licensed facilities is reported to the Long-Term Care Ombudsman, and suspected abuse in community settings is reported to Adult Protective Services. Health practitioners have an opportunity to prevent and detect abuse at early stages, thus improving the quality of life for their patients and those who love them.
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