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In this commentary, we contest Van Lange and colleagues' central claim that “countries closer to the equator are generally more violent.” We point to the lack of credible empirical evidence for this assertion and suggest that the CLASH model uses the language of science to lend false credibility to a problematic sociocultural discourse.
The ability to use serving size information on food labels is important for managing age-related chronic conditions such as diabetes, obesity and cancer. Past research suggests that older adults are at risk for failing to accurately use this portion of the food label due to numeracy skills. However, the extent to which older adults pay attention to serving size information on packages is unclear. We compared the effects of numeracy and attention on age differences in accurate use of serving size information while individuals evaluated product healthfulness.
Accuracy and attention were assessed across two tasks in which participants compared nutrition labels of two products to determine which was more healthful if they were to consume the entire package. Participants’ eye movements were monitored as a measure of attention while they compared two products presented side-by-side on a computer screen. Numeracy as well as food label habits and nutrition knowledge were assessed using questionnaires.
Sacramento area, California, USA, 2013–2014.
Stratified sample of 358 adults, aged 20–78 years.
Accuracy declined with age among those older adults who paid less attention to serving size information. Although numeracy, nutrition knowledge and self-reported food label use supported accuracy, these factors did not influence age differences in accuracy.
The data suggest that older adults are less accurate than younger adults in their use of serving size information. Age differences appear to be more related to lack of attention to serving size information than to numeracy skills.
Echocardiography detects a greater prevalence of rheumatic heart disease than heart auscultation. Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease combined with secondary prophylaxis may potentially prevent severe rheumatic heart disease in high-risk populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in children from an urban New Zealand population at high risk for acute rheumatic fever.
Methods and results
To optimise accurate diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease, we utilised a two-step model. Portable echocardiography was conducted on 1142 predominantly Māori and Pacific children aged 10–13 years. Children with an abnormal screening echocardiogram underwent clinical assessment by a paediatric cardiologist together with hospital-based echocardiography. Rheumatic heart disease was then classified as definite, probable, or possible. Portable echocardiography identified changes suggestive of rheumatic heart disease in 95 (8.3%) of 1142 children, which reduced to 59 (5.2%) after cardiology assessment. The prevalence of definite and probable rheumatic heart disease was 26.0 of 1000, with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 12.6 to 39.4. Portable echocardiography overdiagnosed rheumatic heart disease with physiological valve regurgitation diagnosed in 28 children. A total of 30 children (2.6%) had non-rheumatic cardiac abnormalities, 11 of whom had minor congenital mitral valve anomalies.
We found high rates of undetected rheumatic heart disease in this high-risk population. Rheumatic heart disease screening has resource implications with cardiology evaluation required for accurate diagnosis. Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease may overdiagnose rheumatic heart disease unless congenital mitral valve anomalies and physiological regurgitation are excluded.
A process has been developed for the deposition of amorphous Ti-Si-N films using reactive ion sputtering of a TiSi target. The Ti-Si-N films have been extensively characterized over a wide range of process parameters. Resistivities of the films less than 300 μΩ-cm have been achieved. Stress measurements on Ti-Si-N films indicate that the film stress changes from tensile to compressive as the nitrogen composition is increased. Near-zero film stresses were achieved by choice of optimum nitrogen N2 flow. SIMS analysis of Cu diffusion through blanket PVD Ti-Si-N (300Å) after an anneal at 390°C/3 hour showed a near overlap of the Cu profile compared to the profile of an unannealed SiO2/PVD Ti-Si-N /Cu film stack, indicating that the Cu did not diffuse significantly through the barrier after anneal. Low contact resistance (0.8 Ω) and low (< 10−11 A) leakage were obtained using a dual inlaid structure with a 300 Å Ti-Si-N processed with optimized conditions. These results showed that Ti-Si-N could be used as a potential barrier for copper metallization.
It has been noted that obsessional patients appear to be equally sensitive to ideas regarding the possibility
that they may cause harm by both their actions and by their failure to act (i.e., omission). This observation is
discrepant with findings in non-clinical populations. The cognitive theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder
suggests that it is the very occurrence of intrusive thoughts about potential harm that mediates this effect. In this
study, 22 obsessional patients and 30 non-clinical participants were provided with details of ambiguous situations
and either a negative or neutral intrusive thought pertaining to this situation. Behavioural and emotional responses
to these situations were rated using self-reported measures. It was found that situations including an intrusive
thought about harm were associated with higher intensity behavioural and emotional responses compared with the
same situation when the intrusion was neutral. Obsessional participants scored higher overall; only on the rating of
perceived responsibility was there an interaction between group and item type. These results are consistent with
the idea that the occurrence of an intrusion about harm modifies both obsessional and non-clinical participants'
reactions in ways that suggest obsessionality, and support cognitive theories that emphasize that obsessional
experiences arise from normal processes.
Eight samples of Littorina tenebrosa and L. saxatilis (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Ireland and Britain, including pairs of each form from two locations in Ireland, were screened for genetic variation at 12 polymorphic enzyme loci using starch gel electrophoresis. Levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity were similar in L. tenebrosa and L. saxatilis, apart from a sample of L. tenebrosa from Britain which was less polymorphic than the Irish samples. No alleles were found to be unique to either form. Phylogenetic analysis using UPGMA showed that L. saxatilis and L. tenebrosa populations clustered as a monophyletic group. Nevertheless, the mean genetic distance between parapatric populations of L. saxatilis and L. tenebrosa (D=0.076) was similar to the mean for allopatric populations of either species (D=0.080). This indicates that there is a barrier to gene flow between the two forms Despite this, L. tenebrosa does not merit specific status since populations of this snail do not cluster as a distinct group, separate from L. saxatilis populations.
The difference in the final shape of the cyst of H. rostochiensis and H. schachtii is shown to be due to patterns of growth during cyst development. The greatest change of form takes place during the first 6 days for H. rostochiensis and the first 12 days for H. schachtii. The principal difference between the cyst shape in the two species is due to the greater increase in length in relation to breadth of the growing H. schachtii cyst. Premature tanning, due to environmental factors, is shown to affect final cyst form.