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Diagnosing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is difficult, and misdiagnosis can lead to unnecessary and prolonged antibiotic treatment. We sought to quantify and characterize unjustified antimicrobial use for VAP and identify risk factors for continuation of antibiotics in patients without VAP after 3 days.
Patients suspected of having VAP were identified in 6 adult intensive care units (ICUs) over 1 year. A multidisciplinary adjudication committee determined whether the ICU team's VAP diagnosis and therapy were justified, using clinical, microbiologic, and radiographic data at diagnosis and on day 3. Outcomes included the proportion of VAP events misdiagnosed as and treated for VAP on days 1 and 3 and risk factors for the continuation of antibiotics in patients without VAP after day 3.
Two hundred thirty-one events were identified as possible VAP by the ICUs. On day 1, 135 (58.4%) of them were determined to not have VAP by the committee. Antibiotics were continued for 120 (76%) of 158 events without VAP on day 3. After adjusting for acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score and requiring vasopressors on day 1, sputum culture collection on day 3 was significantly associated with antibiotic continuation in patients without VAP. Patients without VAP or other infection received 1,183 excess days of antibiotics during the study.
Overdiagnosis and treatment of VAP was common in this study and led to 1,183 excess days of antibiotics in patients with no indication for antibiotics. Clinical differences between non-VAP patients who had antibiotics continued or discontinued were minimal, suggesting that clinician preferences and behaviors contribute to unnecessary prescribing.
Seasonal influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States each year. Healthcare worker (HCW) influenza vaccination is associated with both decreased absenteeism among employees and improved outcomes among patients. However, HCW influenza vaccine uptake remains suboptimal. The objective of this study was to characterize HCWs' understanding of and response to a stringent vaccination policy.
Design, Setting, and Participants.
A survey of 928 hospital staff at a tertiary academic medical center in Baltimore during the 2008-2009 influenza season.
Of those surveyed, 75% (n = 695) completed the survey; 623 respondents reported regular patient contact, and 91% of those reported vaccination in the current influenza season. However, only 60% reported consistently receiving the vaccine every year. Of those who were vaccinated, 8% (n = 48) reported being vaccinated for the first time during that influenza season. A significant proportion (42%) of respondents were unaware of the major change in hospital policy regarding vaccination. Influences on the decision to be vaccinated varied significantly between those who are regularly vaccinated and those with inconsistent vaccination habits. Attitudes toward hospital policy varied significantly by race and clinical role.
Although 91% of respondents with regular patient contact reported being vaccinated for influenza in the 2008–2009 season, only 60% reported consistent annual vaccination. Misinformation regarding hospital policies is widespread. Improvements in vaccination rates will likely require multifaceted, targeted efforts focused on specific influences on less adherent groups. The identified variability in influences on the decision to be vaccinated suggests possible targets for future interventions.
Intensive care units (ICUs) are potential high-risk areas for the transmission of respiratory viruses such as influenza. An influenza pandemic is expected to result in a dramatic surge of critically ill patients, and ICU healthcare workers (HCW) are likely to be at high risk of infection.
To characterize the knowledge, attitudes, and expected behaviors of ICU HCWs concerning the risk of and response to an influenza pandemic.
Design, Participants, and Setting.
A survey was distributed to 292 HCWs (ie, internal medicine house staff, pulmonary and critical care fellows and faculty members, nurses, and respiratory care professionals) at 2 hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland.
Of the 292 HCWs, 256 (88%) completed the survey. Just over one-half of the respondents believed there is at least a 45% chance of an influenza pandemic within the next 5 years. However, only 41% reported knowing how to protect themselves during an outbreak. Despite this common belief that a pandemic is likely in the near future, 59% of those surveyed reported only minimal knowledge of the risks of and protective strategies for an influenza pandemic, and 20% reported being unlikely to report to work during a pandemic or being unsure about whether they would do so. The odds of reporting to work varied on the basis of race and responsibility for child care.
ICU HCWs reported having minimal knowledge concerning the risk of and response to an influenza pandemic, even though more that one-half of HCWs expect that a pandemic will occur in the near future. This finding in a high-risk setting is of concern, given that lack of knowledge among HCWs may result in increased nosocomial transmission to HCWs and patients. Interventions to improve knowledge of pandemics and understanding of risks among ICU HCWs are essential.
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