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Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum.
A retrospective chart review was performed on patients transported by EMS over a three-month period in 2014 to four private EDs in India. A total of 17,541 patient records were sampled from the four sites over the study period. Of these records, 1,723 arrived by EMS and so were included for further review.
A range of 1.4%-19.4% of ED patients utilized EMS to get to the ED. The majority of EMS patients were male (59%-64%) and adult or geriatric (93%-99%). The most common chief complaints and ED diagnoses were neurological, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, trauma, and infectious disease.
Neurological, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, trauma, and infectious disease are the most common problems found in patients transported by EMS in India. Adult and geriatric male patients are the most common EMS utilizers. Emergency Medical Services curricula should emphasize these knowledge areas and skills.
WijesekeraO, ReedA, ChastainPS, BiggsS, ClarkEG, KoleT, ChakrapaniAT, AshishN, RajhansP, BreaudAH, JacquetGA. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Utilization in Four Indian Emergency Departments. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):675–679.
This volume has grown out of a conference on ‘The Prelate in Late Medieval and Reformation England’, held at the University of Liverpool in September 2011. All the papers delivered at that conference are published below, apart from those given by Natalia Nowakowska and Brigitte Resl. The volume also includes a chapter by Cédric Michon, offered subsequent to the Liverpool conference. I would like to thank the contributors to both the conference and to the volume, all of whom have been stimulating and good-humoured collaborators throughout this project.
I would also like to acknowledge gratefully the work and expert guidance of all those at Boydell & Brewer and York Medieval Press who have been involved with this volume and especially Caroline Palmer, Rohais Haughton and Professor Peter Biller. The Liverpool conference was funded partly by a British Academy Research Development Award, and partly by financial contributions from the department of History of the University of Liverpool and the Liverpool Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, without all of whose generous support the event could not have taken place. This publication has also been made possible by a grant from the Scouloudi Foundation in association with the Institute of Historical Research, acknowledged here with gratitude.
The years between the early fourteenth and the mid sixteenth century are of considerable interest in the history of the prelate. In some respects, this era might be regarded as a golden age of prelacy, culminating in the appearance of great ecclesiastical dignitaries across much of Europe, such as Wolsey, d'Amboise, Cisneros, Lang and Jagiellon. In terms of their political weight, their grandeur and their wide-ranging cultural patronage, these early sixteenth-century ‘cardinal-ministers’ arguably represented a high point in prelatical influence. Nor should they be regarded as wholly distinct from their clerical contemporaries: recent studies of Renaissance cardinals and the early Tudor episcopate indicate that the next rank of senior churchmen were no less concerned to express the importance and dignity of their office. However, the period c. 1300–c. 1560 also witnessed a developing critique of prelacy – not unconnected with these eye-catching assertions of ecclesiastical status and power – with complaints about senior members of the Church hierarchy a commonplace in the literature and preaching of the day. To these criticisms were added attacks on the very concept of the prelate, which was rejected as unscriptural by John Wyclif and his followers: a critique which would be taken up enthusiastically by sixteenth-century reformers in England and Europe.