Host condition depends in large part on the quality and quantity of available food and heavily influences the outcome of parasite infection. Although parasite fitness traits such as growth rate and size may depend on host condition, whether host food quality or quantity is more important to parasite fitness and within-host interactions is poorly understood. We provided individual mosquito hosts with a standard dose of a gregarine parasite and reared mosquitoes on two food types of different quality and two quantities. We measured host size, total parasite count and area, and average size of parasites within each treatment. Food quality significantly influenced the number of parasites in a host; hosts fed a low-quality diet were infected with more parasites than those provided a high-quality diet. In addition, we found evidence of within-host competition; there was a negative relationship between parasite size and count though this relationship was dependent on host food quality. Host food quantity significantly affected total parasite area and parasite size; lower food quantity resulted in smaller parasites and reduced overall parasite area inside the host. Thus both food quality and quantity have the potential to influence parasite fitness and population dynamics.