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Southern California has experienced widespread amphibian declines since the 1960s. One species, the Vulnerable California red-legged frog Rana draytonii, is now considered to be extirpated from most of southern California. In February 2017 a population of R. draytonii was discovered in the southern foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains of Riverside County, California, near the edge of the species’ historical distribution. This population belongs to an mtDNA lineage that was presumed to be extirpated within the USA but is still extant in Baja California, Mexico. This discovery increases the potential for future, evolutionarily informed translocations within the southern portion of this species’ range in California.
We apply recently recommended Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) classification criteria from the movement disorders society (MDS) to PD patients and controls and compare diagnoses to that of short global cognitive scales at baseline and over time. We also examine baseline prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms across different definitions of MCI.
51 PD patients and 50 controls were classified as cognitively normal, MCI, or demented using MDS criteria (1.5 or 2.0 SD below normative values), Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR), and the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). All subject had parallel assessment with the Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI).
We confirmed that PD-MCI (a) is frequent, (b) increases the risk of PDD, and (c) affects multiple cognitive domains. We highlight the predictive variability of different criteria, suggesting the need for further refinement and standardization. When a common dementia outcome was used, the Level II MDS optimal testing battery with impairment defined as two SD below norms in 2+ tests performs the best. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were more common in PD across all baseline and longitudinal cognitive classifications.
Our results advance previous findings on the utility of MDS PD-MCI criteria for PD patients and controls at baseline and over time. Additionally, we emphasize the possible utility of other cognitive scales and neuropsychiatric symptoms.
We conducted surveys for the Endangered Sierra Madre yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa throughout southern California to evaluate the current distribution and status of the species. Surveys were conducted during 2000–2009 at 150 unique streams and lakes within the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and Palomar mountains of southern California. Only nine small, geographically isolated populations were detected across the four mountain ranges, and all tested positive for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Our data show that when R. muscosa is known to be present it is easily detectable (89%) in a single visit during the frog's active season. We estimate that only 166 adult frogs remained in the wild in 2009. Our research indicates that R. muscosa populations in southern California are threatened by natural and stochastic events and may become extirpated in the near future unless there is some intervention to save them.
Over a decade ago I was involved in a group project that focused on developing a regulatory model concerning the implementation of the precautionary principle in the EU. The project involved a number of workshops and in those workshops I used to joke about the fact that while there were many different frameworks being produced to represent risk regulation, these diagrams basically fell into two different categories. In the first category there were those diagrams that characterised risk regulation as a linear process involving usually a scientific process of risk assessment and then political processes of risk management and risk communication. In the second category there were those diagrams that had lots of looping arrows going all over the place that represented the fact that risk regulation was an iterative process that constantly involved many scientific, socio-political and other inputs.
Behind my joking was a sense of hope. The linear diagrams did have their minimalist appeal, but the messy diagrams captured much of the reality of this area of regulatory practice.
Special trial designs have been developed to distinguish the symptomatic and disease modifying effects of treatment using clinical outcome measures. These designs, termed 'two-period' designs, include the so-called withdrawal and delayed-start (or 'staggered-start') designs and their variations. This chapter describes these study designs in terms of their rationale, assumptions, design features, implementation, statistical analysis, and sample size considerations. It also discusses the important limitations of the designs. Simulation studies using disease progression modeling suggest that the withdrawal design may provide more power than the delayed start design to detect disease-modifying effects of a treatment. A statistical model for data from a complete two-period design assumes that a normally-distributed outcome termed µ 2. There are alternative approaches to evaluating the disease-modifying effects of an intervention that require only a single treatment period.
Although translation of foreign literature was rare in Byzantium, in c. 1300 three Greek translations of treatises on using the astrolabe appeared, two from Latin and one from Persian or Arabic; all three are assessed in terms of Greek style and significance for Byzantine culture. The Islamic treatise translated by Shams al-Din al-Bukhari includes a translator’s preface, edited in full and translated into English here for the first time. In the preface, Shams describes a deluxe astrolabe sent to Andronikos II with the treatise in the hope, it is argued, of some personal benefit in return.
The concept of transnational environmental law is used descriptively and prescriptively to refer to a multitude of legal processes which are distinct from transnational law in other legal areas. Hence, the rise of transnational environmental law requires environmental lawyers to reflect on their skills and knowledge and to foster both their contributory and interactional expertise in this area. That process of fostering expertise needs to be seen in light of a number of intellectual challenges, including the necessity to engage with comparative environmental law methodology, the need to not privilege one legal system over others, the need to engage with extended legal pluralism, the importance of thinking about the role of language in legal processes, and the significance of understanding the process of co-production.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has offered guidance on using health related quality of life (HRQoL) measures to support labeling claims, and the definition of HRQoL has become more systematized. HRQoL measures look at patients' reports of their perceived health in either very general or very particular terms. Utility assessment is an increasingly active area of research in multiple sclerosis (MS). HRQoL data are used for three general purposes: to classify or group patients by levels of disease severity, predict the health of subjects at a future point in time, and as outcome variables. MS-specific HRQoL measures have been included as endpoints in many clinical studies, including some randomized controlled clinical trials. Selection of the most appropriate disease-specific measures by investigators should be based on available validity and reliability data for those measures and the specific questions that the researcher hopes to answer.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene cluster in chromosome 6p21.3 represents by far the strongest multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility locus genome-wide, explaining approximately 7%-10% of the total (genetic and non-genetic) variance. Two main biological issues contributed to thwart gene discovery efforts in MS. First, the effect attributable to each individual allelic variant is modest. Second, the true signals need to be isolated from the abundant genetic variation that characterizes the human population as a whole, leading to the inescapable conclusion that the discovery of genes influencing MS risk must rely primarily on very large patient datasets and well-matched controls. Concordance in families for some clinical metrics such as severity or age-of-onset suggests that genes modestly influence disease trajectory and course. High throughput methods of analysis have enabled the characterization of gene expression signatures characteristic of the disease and multiple efforts are underway to identify biomarkers of therapeutic response.
Insight in psychosis has previously been associated with both depression and cognitive ability. Some studies have found a curvilinear relationship between insight and cognitive ability but the roles of self-esteem and depression have not been taken into account.
To investigate the relationships between insight and IQ, depression, and self-esteem.
Correlations between self-reported and observer-rated insight, and measures of IQ, depression and self-esteem were examined in 67 people with psychosis.
Better self-reported insight was associated with higher IQ and poorer self-esteem, but not depression. There was some evidence for a curvilinear relationship between IQ and self-reported insight, specifically the ‘awareness of illness' dimension, which survived correction for symptom variables.
The relationship between insight and IQ might reflect both the basis of insight in intellectual ability and the influence of a psychological mechanism that preserves self-esteem.