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There has been—and continues to be—tension between Native peoples and museums in the United States due to past collecting practices and exhibitions that strive to interpret their culture and history without their involvement. Previously, many of these exhibitions stereotyped and lumped Native peoples together, depicting their cultures as static and interpreting them and their material culture from a Western scientific perspective. Changes are being made. Collaboration between Native peoples and museums in all areas of museum work, including exhibitions, is beginning to be considered by many as a best practice. Exhibitions developed in collaboration with Native peoples, with shared curatorial authority, decidedly help ease the historic tension between the two, and they are much more vibrant and accurate than when collaboration is lacking. This article will provide three examples of collaboration, defined with our tribal partners, to develop exhibitions at History Colorado, the state history museum, concluding with lessons learned.
Most mid-life and older adults are not achieving recommended physical activity (PA) targets and effective interventions are needed to increase and maintain PA long-term for health benefits. The Pedometer And Consultation Evaluation (PACE-UP) trial, a three-armed primary care pedometer-based walking intervention in those aged 45–75 years, demonstrated increased PA levels at 12 months. A three-year follow-up was conducted to evaluate long-term PA maintenance, including a qualitative component.
To examine facilitators and barriers to PA maintenance in mid-life and older adults previously involved in a PA trial.
Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 60 PACE-UP participants across all study arms. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by researchers, prior to thematic analysis.
Two-thirds of participants felt since the PACE-UP trial they had an awareness of PA, with the pedometer reported as ‘kick-starting’ regular activity, and then helped them to maintain regular activity. PA facilitators included: maintaining good health, self-motivation, social support and good weather. Lack of time was the most frequently cited barrier. Other barriers were often the inverse of the facilitators; for example, poor health and bad weather. Participants described the type of ‘top-up’ intervention they would find beneficial to aid PA maintenance (eg, text messages, online resources and walking groups).
A challenge for future PA interventions is to transform barriers into facilitators; for example, educating trial participants about the value of PA for many chronic health conditions to change this from inhibiting to promoting PA. Participants provided ideas for encouraging PA maintenance which could be incorporated into future interventions.
Palliative care for nursing home residents with advanced dementia is often sub-optimal due to poor communication and limited care planning. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, registered nurses (RNs) from 10 nursing homes were trained and funded to work as Palliative Care Planning Coordinators (PCPCs) to organize family case conferences and mentor staff. This qualitative sub-study aimed to explore PCPC and health professional perceptions of the benefits of facilitated case conferencing and identify factors influencing implementation.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the RNs in the PCPC role, other members of nursing home staff, and physicians who participated in case conferences. Analysis was conducted by two researchers using a thematic framework approach.
Interviews were conducted with 11 PCPCs, 18 other nurses, eight allied health workers, and three physicians. Perceived benefits of facilitated case conferencing included better communication between staff and families, greater multi-disciplinary involvement in case conferences and care planning, and improved staff attitudes and capabilities for dementia palliative care. Key factors influencing implementation included: staffing levels and time; support from management, staff and physicians; and positive family feedback.
The facilitated approach explored in this study addressed known barriers to case conferencing. However, current business models in the sector make it difficult for case conferencing to receive the required levels of nursing qualification, training, and time. A collaborative nursing home culture and ongoing relationships with health professionals are also prerequisites for success. Further studies should document resident and family perceptions to harness consumer advocacy.
A recurring theme of the Late Bronze Age is the apparent association between deliberate deposition of material and wet places. Recently, a human skull has been discovered within the basal sediments of a relict mire at Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire, dating to the later Bronze Age (c. 1250–840 cal BC). The find, which belonged to a c. 25–35 year old male, was located within a layer of silty wood peat elm deep, representing the ancient root system of a hazel copse and containing many hazelnuts and some charcoal. Palaeopathological investigation established the likelihood that the skull had decomposed before deposition and there are strong parallels between the find and its context and other prehistoric skulls recorded from British wetlands. The connection of the human remains with considerable amounts of hazel wood may also be of significance when viewed within the wider context of similar associations recorded from European bog-bodies. During the course of excavation and survey of the site worked wood fragments were recovered indicating both human and animal (beaver) activity, dating to the later Bronze Age and Early Iron Age respectively. The stratigraphic sequence indicated that organic sedimentation resulted from the rapid flooding of a formerly relatively dry landscape, perhaps as a result of the effects of beaver damming – a possibility which may hold wider implications for the archaeological interpretation of prehistoric pollen data.
Very high surface area nanostructured metal electrodes are of interest as efficient current collectors. For thin film devices, the nanostructured metal can be grown in place using electrodeposition or electroless deposition. For larger devices metal electrodes structured at more than one length scale are desirable. Self-assembling surfactant templates are a versatile method of generating a range of nanostructures. As we report here, electrodeposition of nickel, cobalt and copper from liquid crystalline solutions of Triton X-100 produces a number of nanostructures, with significant surface area increases. Electrodeposition into templates with microstructure has proven more demanding. Oil-in-water Microemulsions of Tween surfactants and soy oil, produce micrometer scale structures, however measured nickel surface area does not scale with sample thickness. The method is also not robust, and was found to give microstructures only for nickel and cobalt. Experiments show that under our conditions a combination of nickel metal, nickel acetate and nickel/detergent microstructures are formed.
The performance of rolling element bearings is enhanced by the application of nanocomposite coatings that are composed of metal carbides incorporated into an amorphous hydrogenated carbon matrix (MC/a-C:H). When applied to the rolling elements in tapered roller bearings, MC/a-C:H coatings were found to help increase fatigue life, rib-roller end scuffing resistance, and false brinelling resistance in poorly lubricated environments. This series of performance tests were conducted with both coated and uncoated rollers. The results are attributed to the minimization of adhesive interactions and desirable counterface micro-polishing due to the presence of the thin hard coatings on rollers in the bearings.
Competition plays an important role in invasion dynamics. According to Elton's biodiversity and invasibility hypothesis, non-native species must be competitively superior to the resident species in order to successfully invade. An invader that is ecologically similar to a native species may cause intense interspecific competition as they both require the same resource. Furthermore, an increase in the density of an invading competitor may enhance the intensity of the competitive interaction, however, this may be reduced if the inferior competitor has a refuge that reduces the amount of time it is in direct contact with the superior competitor. In laboratory-based competition experiments between the non-native caprellid Caprella mutica and two ecologically similar native caprellids Caprella linearis and Pseudoprotella phasma, C. mutica successfully displaced both species from homogeneous artificial habitat patches after 48 hours. Patches that contained a refuge reduced the number of C. linearis being displaced but only when C. mutica was at a low density. Potentially aggressive interactions between C. mutica and the native C. linearis may have caused C. linearis to be displaced from the patches and could have caused significantly higher mortality of C. linearis compared to the controls. This is the first study to show that the non-native C. mutica has the ability to displace ecologically similar native species when the resource space is limited and when the density of C. mutica was significantly (10 times) lower than the density of C. linearis.
This study examined the effectiveness of the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum the emotional development of school-aged children. PATHS, a school-based preventive intervention model was designed to improve children's ability to discuss and understand emotions and emotion concepts. The intervention field trial included 30 classrooms in a randomized design and involved the assessment of 286 children from grades 2 and 3. Approximately 30% of the children were in self-contained special needs classrooms, with the remainder in regular education. Teachers were trained in the intervention model and provided PATHS lessons during most of the one school year. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for both low- and high-risk (special needs) children in improving their range of vocabulary and fluency in discussing emotional experiences, their efficacy beliefs regarding the management of emotions, and their developmental understanding of some aspects of emotions. In some instances, greater improvement was shown in children with higher teacher ratings of psychopathology. Discussion focused on the nature of change school-based prevention trials.
Insight in psychosis has previously been associated with both depression and cognitive ability. Some studies have found a curvilinear relationship between insight and cognitive ability but the roles of self-esteem and depression have not been taken into account.
To investigate the relationships between insight and IQ, depression, and self-esteem.
Correlations between self-reported and observer-rated insight, and measures of IQ, depression and self-esteem were examined in 67 people with psychosis.
Better self-reported insight was associated with higher IQ and poorer self-esteem, but not depression. There was some evidence for a curvilinear relationship between IQ and self-reported insight, specifically the ‘awareness of illness' dimension, which survived correction for symptom variables.
The relationship between insight and IQ might reflect both the basis of insight in intellectual ability and the influence of a psychological mechanism that preserves self-esteem.
Since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, the amount of terrorism preparedness training has increased substantially. However, gaps continue to exist in training for the mental health casualties that result from such events. Responders must be aware of the mental health effects of terror-ism and how to prepare for and buffer these effects. However, the degree to which responders possess or value this knowledge has not been studied.
Multi-disciplinary terrorism preparedness training for healthcare professionals was conducted in Kansas in 2003. In order to assess knowledge and attitudes related to mental health preparedness training, post-test surveys were provided to 314 respondents 10 months after completion of the training. Respondents returned 197 completed surveys for an analysis response rate of 63%.
In general, the results indicated that respondents have knowledge of and value the importance of mental health preparedness issues. The respon-dents who reported greater knowledge or value of mental health preparedness also indicated significantly higher ability levels in nationally recognized bioterrorism competencies (p <0.001).
These results support the need for mental health components to be incorporated into terrorism preparedness training. Further studies to determine the most effective mental health preparedness training content and instruction modalities are needed.
To determine (1) the annual costs of implementing and maintaining tuberculin skin test (TST) programs at participating study sites, (2) the cost of the TST program per healthcare worker (HCW), and (3) the outcomes of the TST programs, including the proportion of HCWs with a documented TST conversion and the proportion who accepted and completed treatment for latent TB infection, before and after the implementation of staffTRAK-TB software (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA).
Cost analysis in which costs for salaries, training, supplies, radiography, and data analysis were collected for two 12-month periods (before and after the implementation of staffTRAK-TB).
Four hospitals (two university and two city) and two health departments (one small county and one big city).
The annual cost of implementing and maintaining a TST program ranged from $66,564 to $332,728 for hospitals and $92,886 to $291,248 for health departments. The cost of the TST program per HCW ranged from $41 to $362 for hospitals and $176 to $264 for health departments.
Costs associated with implementing and maintaining a TST program varied widely among the participating study sites, both before and after the implementation of staffTRAK-TB. Compliance with the TB infection control guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention may require a substantial investment in personnel time, effort, and commitment.
Loneliness has been consistently identified as one of the specific ‘social problems’ which accompanies old age and growing older: 90 per cent of the general population of Britain feel that loneliness is a problem associated with old age. There is a widespread presumption that loneliness and isolation have become more prevalent in Britain in the period since the Second World War as a result of the decline in multi-generation households and changes in family structure. This paper examines the accuracy of this stereotype and considers if current cohorts of older people are more likely to report experiencing loneliness than previous generations of elders, through a comparative analysis of historical and contemporary data. Historical data are provided by three ‘classic’ social surveys undertaken in England between 1945 and 1960. Contemporary data are from a postal survey of 245 people aged 65–74 living in South London in 1999. The questions used in all four surveys were comparable, in that respondents self-rated their degree of loneliness on scales ranging from never to always. The overall prevalence of reports of loneliness ranged from five to nine per cent and showed no increase. Loneliness rates for specific age or gender sub-groups were also stable. Reported loneliness amongst those living alone decreased from 32 per cent in 1945 to 14 per cent in 1999, while the percentages decreased for both those reporting that they were never lonely and that they were ‘sometimes’ lonely.
Boron carbide (BC) is well known as a coating material that is important for a wide range of technological applications. The applicability of boron carbide stems from the fact that it is a very hard material with high lubricity, high elastic modulus, low specific gravity, and good chemical stability. Disadvantages, however, include extreme brittleness and sometimes poor adhesion. Recently, a reactive sputtering involving boron carbide targets and hydrocarbon gases has been used to produce novel nano-composite boron carbide thin films comprised of BC nano-crystals embedded in a matrix of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (DLC). The microstructure of these thin films is similar to that of other metal carbide/DLC nano-composite films. The present paper discusses the results of Vickers indentation experiments carried out on four different samples of boron carbide/DLC coatings that were sputtered deposited onto 52100 steel disks. The four different samples resulted from four different levels of hydrocarbon gas flow during processing. Acoustic emission data was recorded simultaneously with the indentation experiments. The indentations and the associated crack patterns were observed using scanning electron microscopy.
Does the law of estoppel remedy reliance loss, or protect and grant expectations? In 1983 it was said that:
‘This is a question that the courts must decide once and for all, and … they must not shirk from providing an answer by pretending that that answer will vary according to the facts of each particular case.’
This article examines a view about this question which I shall call the ‘reliance loss theory’, which states that the normal response to a successful plea of estoppel is to compensate the claimant's reliance loss rather than to fulfil his expectations; in other words, that the court will, if possible, remedy the detriment he has already suffered in reliance upon what the other has said, without going to the lengths of obliging that other to abide by, or fulfil, what he has led the claimant to believe by his conduct or silence. The reliance loss theory has been presented as a description of what actually happens, but it also appears as an argument for what the law should be.
It has been said that ‘the law of limitation is a subject which peculiarly involves an enquiry into first principles.’ That is particularly true in registered land. Section 75 of the Land Registration Act 1925 grafted into registered land a concept inimical to it, namely the possibility of defeat by adverse possession of a flawless documentary title. That endeavour has on the whole been successful; but there remain problems, concerning such fundamental concepts as trusts, the nature of legal estates after 1925, and ‘title absolute.’ This article seeks to explore those problems; at the same time, the opportunity will be taken to look again at the decision in Spectrum Investment Co v Holmes and to suggest that it need no longer be regarded as a major source of difficulty.
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