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Sexual assault, including unwanted sexual contact, coercion, and rape, is a social phenomenon that has been approached in a variety of ways in different global contexts. Attempts to address risk and protective factors for perpetrators and victims are limited by the difficulty of collecting empirical data on experiences that can be traumatic, stigmatizing, complicated, and private. This chapter explores current and historic definitions of sexual assault as well as how these definitions influence estimates of sexual assault prevalence and subsequent psychological and public health responses. We describe best practices in sexual assault measurement, explore the need for culturally acceptable interventions that acknowledge intersections of identity, critique current victim response services, and finally provide recommendations for future directions in sexual assault prevention and response.
In much of Europe, the advent of low-input cereal farming regimes between c.ad 800 and 1200 enabled landowners—lords—to amass wealth by greatly expanding the amount of land under cultivation and exploiting the labour of others. Scientific analysis of plant remains and animal bones from archaeological contexts is generating the first direct evidence for the development of such low-input regimes. This article outlines the methods used by the FeedSax project to resolve key questions regarding the ‘cerealization’ of the medieval countryside and presents preliminary results using the town of Stafford as a worked example. These indicate an increase in the scale of cultivation in the Mid-Saxon period, while the Late Saxon period saw a shift to a low-input cultivation regime and probably an expansion onto heavier soils. Crop rotation appears to have been practised from at least the mid-tenth century.
The early Middle Ages saw a major expansion of cereal cultivation across large parts of Europe thanks to the spread of open-field farming. A major project to trace this expansion in England by deploying a range of scientific methods is generating direct evidence for this so-called ‘Medieval Agricultural Revolution’.
We apply a deep convolutional neural network segmentation model to enable novel automated microstructure segmentation applications for complex microstructures typically evaluated manually and subjectively. We explore two microstructure segmentation tasks in an openly available ultrahigh carbon steel microstructure dataset: segmenting cementite particles in the spheroidized matrix, and segmenting larger fields of view featuring grain boundary carbide, spheroidized particle matrix, particle-free grain boundary denuded zone, and Widmanstätten cementite. We also demonstrate how to combine these data-driven microstructure segmentation models to obtain empirical cementite particle size and denuded zone width distributions from more complex micrographs containing multiple microconstituents. The full annotated dataset is available on materialsdata.nist.gov.
For this study, we adapted the Montgomery Borgatta Caregiver Burden Scale, used widely in the United States, to the Saudi Arabian context. To produce an Arabic, culturally sensitive version of the scale, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Saudi family caregivers. The Arabic version of the scale was tested, and participants were asked to comment on the appropriateness of items for the construct of “caregiver burden” using the repertory grid technique and laddering procedure – two constructivist methods derived from personal construct theory. From interview findings, we examined the content of the items and the caregiver burden construct itself. Our findings suggest that the use of constructivist methods to refine constructs and quantitative instruments is highly informative. This strategy is feasible even when little is known about the investigated constructs in the target culture and further elucidates our understanding of cross-cultural variations or invariance of different versions of the scale.
We question whether the increasingly popular, radical idea of turning half the Earth into a network of protected areas is either feasible or just. We argue that this Half-Earth plan would have widespread negative consequences for human populations and would not meet its conservation objectives. It offers no agenda for managing biodiversity within a human half of Earth. We call instead for alternative radical action that is both more effective and more equitable, focused directly on the main drivers of biodiversity loss by shifting the global economy from its current foundation in growth while simultaneously redressing inequality.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Research suggests that levels of discrimination against people using mental health services are high; however, reports of these people's experiences are rare.
To determine whether the Time to Change (TTC) programme target of 5% reduction in discrimination has been achieved.
Separate samples of people using mental health services were interviewed annually from 2008 to 2011 using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale to record instances of discrimination.
Ninety-one per cent of participants reported one or more experiences of discrimination in 2008 compared with 88% in 2011 (z=-1.9, P=0.05). The median negative discrimination score was 40% in 2008 and 28% in 2011 (Kruskal-Wallis χ2=83.4, P < 0.001).
The proportion of participants experiencing no discrimination increased significantly over the course of TTC but by less than the initial target The overall median discrimination score fell by 11.5%. Data from 2010 and 2011 suggest that these gains may be hard to maintain during economic austerity.
This paper presents a case study of the economic damages to homeowners in a northern New Jersey community due to an exotic forest insect—the hemlock woolly adelgid. Hedonic property value methods are used to estimate the effect of hemlock health on property values. A statistically significant relationship between hemlock health and residential property values is established. Moreover, there are some signs of spillover impacts from hemlock decline, as negative effects are realized on the parcels where the declining hemlock stands are located as well as on neighboring properties. These results give some indication of the benefits of potential control programs and strategies and also show support for community- or neighborhood-based programs in residential settings.
A detailed comparison between the experimental evolution of a two-dimensional soap froth and the large Q state Potts model is presented. The pattern evolution starting from identical initial conditions will be compared as well as a variety of distribution functions and correlations of the two systems. Simulations on different lattices show that the discrete lattice of the Potts model causes deviations from universal domain growth by weakening the vertex angle boundary conditions that form the basis of von Neumann's law. We show that the anisotropy inherent in a discrete lattice simulation, which masks the underlying ‘universal’ grain growth, can be overcome by increasing the range of the interaction between spins or increasing the temperature. Excellent overall agreement between the kinetics, topological distributions and domain size distributions between the low lattice anisotropy Potts-model simulations and the soap froth suggests that the Potts model is useful for studying domain growth in a wide variety of physical systems.
A Monte Carlo computer simulation that percolates soft-core, pseudographic whiskers in a discrete matrix has been developed, and two- and three-dimensional whisker percolation thresholds were determined for various whisker aspect ratios. The percolation thresholds were found to agree with the predictions of the excluded volume theory of percolation; moreover, the thresholds were found to coincide with the zero-shrinkage whisker fraction in ceramic matrix-ceramic particle composites.
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