To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
It is important that health professionals and support staff are prepared for disasters to safeguard themselves and the community during disasters. There has been a significantly heightened focus on disasters since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in New York (USA); however, despite this, it is evident that health professionals and support staff may not be adequately prepared for disasters.
An integrative literature review was performed based on a keyword search of the major health databases for primary research evaluating preparedness of health professionals and support staff. The literature was quality appraised using a mixed-methods appraisal tool (MMAT), and a thematic analysis was completed to identify current knowledge and gaps.
The main themes identified were: health professionals and support staff may not be fully prepared for disasters; the most effective content and methods for disaster preparedness is unknown; and the willingness of health professionals and support staff to attend work and perform during disasters needs further evaluation. Gaps were identified to guide further research and the creation of new knowledge to best prepare for disasters. These included the need for: high-quality research to evaluate the best content and methods of disaster preparedness; inclusion of the multi-disciplinary health care team as participants; preparation for internal disasters; the development of validated competencies for preparedness; validated tools for measurement; and the importance of performance in actual disasters to evaluate preparation.
The literature identified that all types of disaster preparedness activities lead to improvements in knowledge, skills, or attitude preparedness for disasters. Most studies focused on external disasters and the preparedness of medical, nursing, public health, or paramedic professionals. There needs to be a greater focus on the whole health care team, including allied health professionals and support staff, for both internal and external disasters. Evaluation during real disasters and the use of validated competencies and tools to deliver and evaluate disaster preparedness will enhance knowledge of best practice preparedness. However, of the 36 research articles included in this review, only five were rated at 100% using the MMAT. Due to methodological weakness of the research reviewed, the findings cannot be generalized, nor can the most effective method be determined.
GowingJR, WalkerKN, ElmerSL, CummingsEA. Disaster Preparedness among Health Professionals and Support Staff: What is Effective? An Integrative Literature Review. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):321–328.
A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7914558) within the cyclin M2
(CNNM2) gene was recently identified as a common risk
variant for schizophrenia. The mechanism by which CNNM2
confers risk is unknown.
To determine the impact of the rs7914558 risk ‘A’ allele
on measures of neurocognition, social cognition and brain structure.
Patients with schizophrenia (n = 400) and healthy
controls (n = 160) completed measures of
neuropsychological function and social cognition. Structural magnetic
resonance imaging data were also acquired from an overlapping sample of
Irish healthy controls (n = 159) and an independent
sample of Italian patients (n = 82) and healthy controls
(n = 39).
No effects of genotype on neuropsychological test performance were
observed. However, a dosage effect of the risk allele was found for an
index of social cognition (i.e. attributional style), such that risk
status was associated with reduced self-serving bias across groups
(GG>AG>AA, P<0.05). Using voxel-based
morphometry to investigate neuroanatomical regions putatively supporting
social cognition, risk carriers had relatively increased grey matter
volume in the right temporal pole and right anterior cingulate cortex
(Pcorrected<0.05) in the Irish healthy controls sample;
neuroanatomical associations between CNNM2 and grey
matter volume in anterior cingulate cortex were also observed in the
Italian schizophrenia and healthy controls samples.
Although the biological role of CNNM2 in schizophrenia
remains unknown, these data suggest that this CNNM2 risk
variant rs7914558 may have an impact on neural systems relevant to social
cognition. How such effects may mediate the relationship between genotype
and disease risk remains to be established.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
We compared the results of the tuberculin skin test with the results of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay among 182 low-risk healthcare workers. Overall agreement and specificity were high, but the tests did not agree on positive results. Only 2 of 5 positive QFT-GIT assay results could be confirmed with repeat analyses. Indeterminate results were associated with potential immunosuppression.
This article presents the current state of knowledge in deliberate-self harm (DSH). DSH presents as a comorbidity with a number of personality disorders and psychopathologies, but is also relatively common in the psychologically healthy population. Over the past 10 years, attention has shifted from the investigation of DSH as a cardinal or comorbid symptom of psychopathology to an attempt to understand the behaviour itself, without reference to other psychopathological processes. It is argued that this development in understanding the aetiology of DSH has not been matched by developments in treatment or management of DSH, with the majority of treatment programs targeting larger syndromes of which DSH is a symptom. Treatment regimes aimed at reducing DSH appear to be either untested or demonstrably unsuccessful.
A previously published study recommended the daily use of visible smoke to test for negative air pressure in isolation rooms occupied by potentially infectious tuberculosis cases. Continuous monitoring devices were found to have poor reliability. Findings from our survey of engineering controls in acute-care hospitals within New York State support this recommendation.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.