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Overview: Human brains are basically social, and use communication mechanisms that have evolved during our evolutionary past. Thus, we suggest that even in communication with and by machines, humans will tend to react socially and use communication mechanisms that are primarily social and embodied. One of these mechanisms is communicative feedback, which refers to unobtrusive (usually short) vocal or bodily expressions, whereby a recipient of information can inform a contributor of information about whether he or she is able and willing to communicate, perceive the information, and understand the information. We will show how feedback can be modeled in virtual agents on facial expressions of a virtual agent or verbot and thus contribute to human–human communication over the internet. We will present a simple model based on a pleasure, arousal, and dominance space, which allows a complex stimulus generation program to be driven with only a few parameters.
Humans are social – but what about human–machine communication?
Internet communication consists of two major domains: communication with a machine and human–human communication through a machine. Both processes involve different but comparable elements in order to be efficient, as we will outline here.
In its early years, the internet was used by a rather small group of scientists for communication via email and bulletin boards. As compared to phone calls and direct face-to-face communication, it seemed to be missing a social component, thus leading to the introduction of emoticons such as the well-known smiley, which constituted a first attempt to fill this gap.
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