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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been widely used in the care of patients with respiratory failure from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We characterized bloodstream infections (BSIs) and ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs) in COVID-19 patients supported with ECMO, and we investigated their impact on patient outcomes.
Retrospective cohort study from March 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021.
Academic tertiary-care referral center.
Consecutive adult patients admitted for COVID-19 who received ECMO.
We identified BSIs and VAPs and described their epidemiology and microbiology. Cumulative antimicrobial use and the specific management of BSIs were determined. Multivariate time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to evaluate the impact of BSIs and VAPs on mortality, controlling for age, receipt of COVID-19–specific therapeutics, and new renal replacement therapy.
We identified 136 patients who received ECMO for COVID-19 pneumonia during the study period. BSIs and VAPs occurred in 81 patients (59.6%) and 93 patients (68.4%), respectively. The incidence of BSIs was 29.5 per 1,000 ECMO days and increased with duration of ECMO cannulation. Enterococci, Enterobacterales, and Staphylococcus aureus were the most common causes of BSIs, whereas S. aureus, Klebsiella species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa comprised the majority of VAPs. Mean antibiotic use comprised 1,031 days of therapy per 1,000 ECMO days (SD, 496). We did not detect an association between BSIs or VAPs and mortality.
BSIs and VAPs are common in COVID-19 ECMO-supported patients. Efforts to optimize their diagnosis, prevention, and management should be prioritized.
Background: Patients with hematologic malignancies are at increased risk for respiratory virus infections (RVIs) and may experience prolonged asymptomatic viral shedding contributing to transmission. In response to 2 extensive RVI outbreaks in our adult cancer center, a universal masking policy was implemented whereby inpatients on malignant hematology units and their visitors were required to wear procedure masks whenever they were walking outside their rooms. Visitors were required to mask when inside patient rooms. Staff were not included in the policy. Here, we describe the impact of universal masking on the incidence of nosocomial RVI in malignant hematology patients. Methods: In this before-and-after study, we examined the effects of universal masking in malignant hematology units of a 170-bed adult cancer hospital in Toronto, Canada, between January 1, 2015, and September 30, 2019. Nosocomial RVI incidence, RVI outbreak descriptions, and hand hygiene compliance rates were collected from hospital infection control databases. Mask utilization was extracted from hospital purchasing records. Staff influenza vaccination rates were obtained from occupational health records. RVI incidence rates before and after the intervention were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: The preimplementation phase ran from January 1, 2015, to February 28, 2017, and the postimplementation phase spanned March 1, 2017, to September 30, 2019. Monthly mask utilization on malignant hematology units increased by 105% after implementing the universal masking policy. Nosocomial RVI incidence decreased significantly after implementing the universal masking policy, and the number of cases involved in RVI outbreaks also decreased (Table 1). There was a 14% increase in nasopharyngeal swab orders after implementation. Staff influenza vaccination rates, hand hygiene compliance and infection control policies remained stable throughout the study. Conclusions: A reduction in the incidence of nosocomial RVI and number of RVI cases in outbreaks was observed after implementing the universal masking policy. Although we were unable to directly measure compliance with the intervention, increased mask utilization after the intervention implied adherence to the policy. Our experience suggests that universal masking in malignant hematology inpatients may be an effective RVI prevention strategy. Further rigorous study is warranted.
Disclosures: Susy Hota reports contract research for Finch Therapeutics.
To assess clinically relevant outcomes after complete cessation of control measures for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).
Quasi-experimental ecological study over 3.5 years.
All VRE screening and isolation practices at 4 large academic hospitals in Ontario, Canada, were stopped on July 1, 2012. In total, 618 anonymized abstracted charts of patients with VRE-positive clinical isolates identified between July 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, were reviewed to determine whether the case was a true VRE infection, a VRE colonization or contaminant, or a true VRE bacteremia. All deaths within 30 days of the last VRE infection were also reviewed to determine whether the death was fully or partially attributable to VRE. All-cause mortality was evaluated over the study period. Generalized estimating equation methods were used to cluster outcome rates within hospitals, and negative binomial models were created for each outcome.
The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for VRE infections was 0.59 and the associated P value was .34. For VRE bacteremias, the IRR was 0.54 and P=.38; for all-cause mortality the IRR was 0.70 and P=.66; and for VRE attributable death, the IRR was 0.35 and P=.49. VRE control measures were not significantly associated with any of the outcomes. Rates of all outcomes appeared to increase during the 18-month period after cessation of VRE control measures, but none reached statistical significance.
Clinically significant VRE outcomes remain rare. Cessation of all control measures for VRE had no significant attributable adverse clinical impact.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1–7
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