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Lev Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory emphasizes the role of historical and social contexts in psychological development. Vygotsky's interpretation of the development of pointing has been rediscovered in the current studies of social referencing in infants. The relationship between higher and lower mental functions in Vygotsky's theory was not strictly determined. Vygotsky's concept of lower mental functions (LMFs) shows the limitations of the infants' precocious abilities: the lack of conscious awareness, language mediation, executive ability, and systemic coordination. At the same time, the discoveries of infants' precocious abilities challenge Vygotsky's theory of LMFs and his general understanding of what cognitive development is. The purpose for future research is to evaluate the original Vygotsky-Luria model of Executive function (EF) as social skill of "tool mediated" self-regulation derived from interactive activities, and to examine it in relation to the contemporary accounts of executive functioning.
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for variation in sternopleural
bristle number in crosses
between the laboratory lines of Drosophila melanogaster OregonR
and CantonS were mapped using
information from allele frequency changes of two families of retrotransposon
divergently selected populations. QTL effects and positions were inferred
by likelihood, using
transition matrix iteration and Monte Carlo interval mapping. Individuals
from the selected
populations were genotyped for markers spaced at an average distance 4.4
cM. Four QTLs of
moderate effect ranging from 0·6 to 1·32 bristles accounted
for most of the selection response. A
permutation test of the correspondence between the mapped QTLs and the
positions of bristle
number candidate genes suggested that alleles at these candidate genes
were no more strongly
associated with selected changes in marker allele frequency than were randomly
chosen positions in
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