This report presents findings from the first phase of a longitudinal study examining the development of articulation quality and specific phoneme awareness during the fourth year of life. Articulation and phoneme awareness of /r/ and a control phoneme were assessed for 80 3-year-old children. Children whose articulation of /r/ was accurate for all items were contrasted with those who were accurate on none. The groups differed in their awareness of /r/, after controlling for awareness of the control phoneme on two of the three phoneme awareness tasks and after controlling for relevant cognitive variables. These findings support the hypothesis that accuracy of articulation is related to quality of phoneme awareness in young children.