Although plant species that attract multiple species of pollinators predominate in tropical plant communities, pollination specialists appear to be at a greater advantage in tropical ecosystems in which pollinators are numerous and many plants flower synchronously. The present study determined the breeding system and legitimate pollinators of Oroxylum indicum Vent. in Songkhla and Patthalung Provinces, Thailand. Oroxylum indicum exhibits steady-state flowering, with one or two flowers per inflorescence opening each night. Flowers open in the evening and drop off shortly after midnight, while its bilabiate stigma is highly sensitive, and quickly close upon being touched. Oroxylum indicum is self-incompatible. Hand-cross pollination and open pollination yielded the highest pollination success (47.7% and 31.2% respectively, n = 7 trees). About 900 pollen grains are needed for initiating fruit set. It is confirmed that a fruit bat, Eonycteris spelaea, is the legitimate pollinator. Bats are responsible for all pollen load and the pollen load from only one visit is generally sufficient to initiate fruit set. Although Eonycteris spelaea is effective, it is an inefficient pollinator. Compared with plant species pollinated by multiple animal species, the likelihood of pollination failure resulting from the decline in populations of Eonycteris spelaea will be much more intense in Oroxylum indicum.