The objective of the research described in this Research Communication was to describe potential associations of subclinical mastitis with sheep breeds in Greece. A countrywide survey (2198 ewes in 111 farms) was performed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 0·260. Results did not indicate any difference in the prevalence of subclinical mastitis between farms with pure-bred and farms with cross-bred animals, nor any difference in prevalence between farms with Greek pure-bred animals and farms with imported pure-bred animals. Results indicated that prevalence of subclinical mastitis was smaller in farms with Assaf-breed (0·100) and higher in farms with Frisarta-breed (0·625) (P < 0·02). Prevalence of mastitis was smaller in farms with Greek traditional indigenous breeds (0·221) (P = 0·007). In a model that included sheep breed and management system in farm, breed emerged as a significant factor for prevalence of subclinical mastitis (P = 0·003).