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Two important factors, the progressively decreasing size of the lanthanides, which is known as the lanthanide contraction, as well as the stability of different oxidation states of these elements influence the prediction of compound formation in the Ba-R-Cu-O systems. A systematic investigation of these lanthanide systems and comparison with the Y system has revealed a correlation of the effect of the above factors, in particular the size factor, on the trend of phase formation, solid solution formation and phase compatibility diagrams of the Ba-R-Cu-O systems. For example, it has been found that the smaller the size of R3+ or the greater the mismatch betwaen Ba2+ and R3+ in the solid solution series Ba2-ZR1+lCu3O6+x, the smaller the extent of solid solution formation. This differing extent of solid solution formation influences the ternary phase relationships.
An experimental approach has been developed using a single-fiber pullout test to measure intrinsic interface properties for ceramic composites. The properties are determined from a pull-out, force-displacement curve, which is directly related to reinforcement toughening via fiber/matrix debonding and frictional pull-out. They were evaluated for a model composite system of continuous SiC fibers with various surface treatments in a borosilicate glass matrix. For the processing conditions used, the interface fracture toughness and the interface frictional shear resistance were found to be 1.0 ± 0.5 J/m2 and 3.3 ± 0.6 MPa, respectively, for as-received fibers. Experiments conducted with long embedded fiber lengths allowed the shear resistance to be deconvolved into an interface friction coefficient of 0.05 ± 0.01 and an initial fiber-clamping pressure of 65 ± 6 MPa. Nitric acidwashed fibers gave an increased interface toughness of 3.6 ± 0.1 J/m2 and friction coefficient of 0.08 ± 0.02, but nearly the same initial clamping pressure, 72 ± 12 MPa. Calculations of the clamping pressure from the fiber/matrix thermal expansion mismatch and from stress birefringence measurements in the glass were in general agreement with this value.
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