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The pig industry faces many animal welfare issues. Among these, biting behaviour has a high incidence. It is indicative of an existing problem in biters and is a source of physical damage and psychological stress for the victims. We categorize this behaviour into aggressive and non-aggressive biting, the latter often being directed towards the tail. This review focusses specifically on predisposing factors in early life, comprising the prenatal and postnatal periods up to weaning, for the expression of aggressive and non-aggressive biting later in life. The influence of personality and coping style has been examined in a few studies. It varies according to these studies and, thus, further evaluation is needed. Regarding the effect of environmental factors, the number of scientific papers is low (less than five papers for most factors). No clear influence of prenatal factors has been identified to date. Aggressive biting is reduced by undernutrition, cross-fostering and socialization before weaning. Non-aggressive biting is increased by undernutrition, social stress due to competition and cross-fostering. These latter three factors are highly dependent on litter size at birth. The use of familiar odours may contribute to reducing biting when pigs are moved from one environment to another by alleviating the level of stress associated with novelty. Even though the current environment in which pigs are expressing biting behaviours is of major importance, the pre-weaning environment should be optimized to reduce the likelihood of this problem.
During its 2012 session the Florida Legislature amended the text of the Florida Statutes which lists exemptions from the requirements of obtaining a Florida drivers’ license. Removed from the text of Florida Statute 322.04 was the line concerning nonresidents, both fellow Americans and international visitors, “who has in his or her immediate possession a valid noncommercial driver's license issued to the nonresident in his or her home state or country [emphasis added].” Inserted was a new line, “An International Driving Permit issued in his or her name in his or her country of residence and a valid license issued in that country.” International visitors were required to have in their possession not only a valid drivers’ license, but also an International Driving Permit (IDP) that translated into English the personal identification information of the driver. The change took effect January 1, 2013, but even before that date, Florida faced allegations that it was violating international law with this new requirement.
Full thickness rotator cuff tears (RCT) and the associated muscle degeneration that results due to this injury presents a significant clinical burden. The prevention or recovery from this degeneration requires the synchronized behavior of many cells that participate in regeneration. Strategies that tune the inflammatory cascade that is initiated after injury serves as a powerful way to influence tissue repair. Here, we use the local, sustained delivery of the immunomodulatory small molecule FTY720 to examine whether the recruitment of pro-regenerative myeloid cells affects the healing outcome. We find that PLGA microparticles have an atrophic effect on the muscle that is ameliorated with the release of FTY720. However, the inability of FTY720 delivery to induce pro-regenerative monocyte and macrophage recruitment and our findings demonstrating enrichment of CD4+ T cells suggest that effects of this small molecule are context dependent and that the underlying mechanisms behind this RCT associated muscle degeneration require further studies.
The requirement for water of growing pigs in large groups has been neglected. Current MAFF recommendations suggest one nipple drinker per 10 pigs, while farmers have often used a ratio of 1 per 20 animals. Neither approach is based on empirical investigation. The relationship between group size and the number of drinking points can not be assumed to be linear. The aim was to assess group size and the two conflicting ratios of drinkers for their effect on welfare, as measured by production performance, drinking and social behaviour.
A total of 640 Large White x Landrace growing pigs (start weight 36kg) were housed in a fully slatted commercial grower house for five weeks. Four replicates were used and each animal was assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial design of two group sizes (20 vs 60) and two ratios of nipple drinkers to pigs (1:10 vs 1:20). The groups of 20 comprised of pigs from 3 different pens, while 9 pens contributed to the groups of 60. The floor space per pig was maintained constant across treatments. Nine focal pigs (three each of heavy, medium and light weight) were selected from each pen.
The resource requirements, such as feeding space, of pigs housed in large groups are poorly understood. The feed intake requirement may be unaffected by group size, but the ability to gain access to the feeders may be influenced by the changed social environment. The observation of pigs feeding may stimulate others to feed also. In large groups, the number of pigs attempting to feed simultaneously could lead to increased competition for access to the feeders (Spoolder et al., 1999). Consequently, the suitability of two feeder space requirements, derived from UK recommendations, for pigs housed at different groups sizes was investigated.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Additive-abrasive interactions in chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) slurries are investigated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The FCS technique provides quantitative determinations of the interaction between additives and abrasive particles by characterizing the competitive adsorption of the additive and a fluorescent probe molecule by an abrasive particle. Adsorption of the CMP additives glycine and benzotriazole (BTA) on precipitated and sol-gel colloidal silica abrasives are characterized. Significant differences in the fluorescent probe’s adsorption to the different silica abrasives in the presence of the additives suggest surface chemistry differences between the different types of silica. Extensions of the analysis of FCS data are proposed for improving the quantitative determination of the competitive adsorption of fluorescent probe dyes and CMP additives on abrasive particles.
It was originally my intention, in entering on this inquiry, merely to ascertain the composition of the ores, the mineralogical characters of which have been so ably delineated by Mr Haidinger in the preceding paper. I had advanced however but a short way in the investigation, when my progress was arrested by doubts both as to the manner of conducting the analyses, and as to the mode of calculating their results. In this uncertainty I found it necessary to extend my original plan, with the view of supplying by my own researches what appeared to be not sufficiently established by the labours of other chemists. I have accordingly divided the essay into two parts; attempting in the first division to ascertain the atomic weight of manganese, and the composition of the artificial oxides of that metal; and in the second, applying the facts thus established to illustrate the chemical constitution of the native oxides described by Mr Haidinger.
Ireland's private health insurance market operates on the basis of community rating, alongside open enrolment and lifetime cover. A risk equalisation scheme was introduced in 2003 to bolster community rating. However, in July 2008 the Irish Supreme Court set aside this scheme, on the basis of the interpretation of community rating in Irish legislation. This decision has significant implications for the Irish private health insurance market. This paper reviews the development of the market, focusing in particular on community rating. The breakdown of community rating in a market with multiple insurers with differing risk profiles is discussed. Applying this to the Irish market, it can be seen that the Irish Supreme Court judgment has significant implications for the application of community rating. Specifically, while community rating operates within plans, it no longer operates across the market, leading to high-risk lives paying more, on average, than low-risk lives. It has also led to greater opportunities for insurers to engage in market segmentation. This may have relevance for the design and operation of other community rated markets.
The Sellafield Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP) immobilises highly active liquid waste (HAL) arising from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in the UK. In order to optimise WVP operations a full scale working replica of a WVP processing line, the Vitrification Test Rig (VTR), was constructed to processes non-active HAL simulants. Recently the VTR has been used to determine an operational envelope for the vitrification of HAL from Magnox reprocessing at a waste oxide incorporation rate in glass of up to 35wt% (compared to a “standard” incorporation rate of 25wt%). This paper discusses the differences in operating conditions necessary to achieve acceptable waste throughput at the increased incorporation rate. The chemical durability of the resulting vitrified product is also discussed, along with the formation of secondary phases, and a comparison is drawn between 35wt% incorporation glasses and products made at the standard 25wt% incorporation.
Techniques and procedures are described for tensile testing of polysilicon specimens that are 1.5 or 3.5 νm thick and have various widths and lengths. The specimens are fixed to the wafer at one end and have a large free end that can be gripped by electrostatic forces. This enables easy handling and testing and permits the deposition of 18 specimens on a one-centimeter square portion of a wafer. The displacement of the free end is monitored, which allows one to extract Young's modulus from the force-displacement record. Some of the wider specimens have two gold lines applied so that strain can be measured interferometrically directly on the specimen to record a stress-strain curve.
The specimens were produced at the Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC). When compared with earlier results of wider MCNC specimens that were 3.5 μm thick, the Young's modulus is smaller and the strength is slightly larger.