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Advanced 2-D and 3-D computer visualizations are increasingly being used for recording and documentation, analysis, dissemination, and public engagement purposes. Recent technological advances not only considerably improve data acquisition, processing, and analysis but also enable easy and efficient online presentation. This article evaluates the contributions of advanced 2-D and 3-D computer visualization and discusses the potential of 3-D modeling for recording basketry technology and documenting the state of preservation of baskets. It explores the available analysis, integration, and online dissemination tools, using as case studies recently excavated baskets from Cache Cave in southern California. Results indicate that the proposed methodology, which incorporates reflectance transformation imaging visualizations and photogrammetric 3-D models, which are further processed using 3-D modeling software and integrated analysis tools and then transformed to a Web-based format, is a useful addition to the basketry analysis toolkit.
To examine factors that influence decision-making, preferences, and plans related to advance care planning (ACP) and end-of-life care among persons with dementia and their caregivers, and examine how these may differ by race.
13 geographically dispersed Alzheimer’s Disease Centers across the United States.
431 racially diverse caregivers of persons with dementia.
Survey on “Care Planning for Individuals with Dementia.”
The respondents were knowledgeable about dementia and hospice care, indicated the person with dementia would want comfort care at the end stage of illness, and reported high levels of both legal ACP (e.g., living will; 87%) and informal ACP discussions (79%) for the person with dementia. However, notable racial differences were present. Relative to white persons with dementia, African American persons with dementia were reported to have a lower preference for comfort care (81% vs. 58%) and lower rates of completion of legal ACP (89% vs. 73%). Racial differences in ACP and care preferences were also reflected in geographic differences. Additionally, African American study partners had a lower level of knowledge about dementia and reported a greater influence of religious/spiritual beliefs on the desired types of medical treatments. Notably, all respondents indicated that more information about the stages of dementia and end-of-life health care options would be helpful.
Educational programs may be useful in reducing racial differences in attitudes towards ACP. These programs could focus on the clinical course of dementia and issues related to end-of-life care, including the importance of ACP.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between measures of adiposity and FGF-23 in a sample of patients with CKD stages 3-4. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study was a clinic-based cross-sectional investigation of 71 CKD patients who underwent body composition and anthropometric assessments as part of the relationship of insulin sensitivity in kidney disease and vascular health (RISKD) study. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were used to measure total fat mass and body mass index (BMI) was computed using baseline weight and height measurements. Biomarkers included serum FGF-23 (C-terminal), serum leptin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), serum triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol. Creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was computed using the CKD-EPI equation. Multiple linear regression with robust standard errors was used to investigate the relationship between FGF2-3 and measures of adiposity (BMI, total fat mass and serum leptin). Log-transformation was performed for variables (FGF-23, hsCRP and serum lipids) with considerable skewness. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The median age of the study participants was 68 (IQR: 60, 73) years; 26% were female and 23% were African-American. Median eGFR was 46.9 ml/min/1.73m2 (IQR: 41.9, 52.8), median BMI was 31 kg/m2 (IQR: 27, 35). Log FGF-23 had a significant positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.27, p = 0.02), total fat mass (r = 0.30, p = 0.01) and serum leptin (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001). After full adjustment for age, sex, race, eGFR, log hsCRP, log HDL and log triglycerides, a 50% increase in FGF-23 was associated with a 1 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.1, 1.9; p = 0.03] increase in BMI, a 2.5 kg [95% CI: 0.2, 4.8; p = 0.03] increase in total fat mass and a 6.7 ng/mL [95% CI: 1.0, 12.4; p = 0.02] increase in serum leptin. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this sample of patients with moderate-to-severe CKD, we found a significant independent association between higher FGF-23 levels and higher adiposity (BMI, total fat mass and the pro-atherogenic adipocytokine, leptin). The underlying causes and the implications of these associations − particularly in bone and vascular health − need to be further investigated.
We describe a new computer program for calculating the spectra of stars that fill their Roche lobes in close binary stars.
Soft X-ray Transients (SXTs) are interacting binary stars in which a compact star is stripping mass from a relatively-normal companion star (the secondary star). One step in the usual method for measuring the mass of the compact stars in these systems is to determine the mass ratio from the rotational broadening of the absorption lines in the spectrum of the secondary. With a few outstanding exceptions (e.g., Shahbaz 2003), the observations have typically been analyzed assuming that the observed spectrum can be modeled by convolving the spectrum of a non-rotating star with a line-broadening function appropriate for a rotating, spherical star. The results are often inadequate because 1) the profiles of the absorption lines vary strongly with orbital phase, and 2) the limb darkening differs from line to line so that no single broadening function can represent the behavior of all lines.
This study explored the combined impact of depression and inflammation on memory functioning among Mexican-American adults and elders.
Data were analyzed from 381 participants of the Health and Aging Brain study among Latino Elders (HABLE). Fasting serum samples were collected and assayed in duplicate using electrochemiluminesce on the SECTOR Imager 2400A from Meso Scale Discovery. Positive DepE (depression endophenotype) was codified as any score >1 on a five-point scale based on the GDS-30. Inflammation was determined by TNFα levels and categorized by tertiles (1st, 2nd, 3rd). WMS-III LMI and LMII as well as CERAD were utilized as measures of memory. ANOVAs examined group differences between positive DepE and inflammation tertiles with neuropsychological scale scores as outcome variables. Logistic regressions were used to examine level of inflammation and DepE positive status on the risk for MCI.
Positive DepE as well as higher inflammation were both independently found to be associated with lower memory scores. Among DepE positive, those who were high in inflammation (3rd tertile) were found to perform significantly worse on WMS-III LM I (F = 4.75, p = 0.003), WMS-III LM II (F = 8.18, p < 0.001), and CERAD List Learning (F = 17.37, p < 0.001) when compared to those low on inflammation (1st tertile). The combination of DepE positive and highest tertile of inflammation was associated with increased risk for MCI diagnosis (OR = 6.06; 95% CI = 3.9–11.2, p < 0.001).
Presence of elevated inflammation and positive DepE scores increased risk for worse memory among Mexican-American older adults. Additionally, the combination of DepE and high inflammation was associated with increased risk for MCI diagnosis. This work suggests that depression and inflammation are independently associated with worse memory among Mexican-American adults and elders; however, the combination of both increases risk for poorer memory beyond either alone.
We infer that detached binary white dwarfs with orbital periods of a few hours exist because we observe both their progenitors and their descendents. The binary LB 3459 has an orbital period of 6.3 hr and contains a pair of hot subdwarfs that will eventually cool to become white dwarfs (Kilkenny, Hill, and Penfold 1981). L870-2 is a pair of white dwarfs and, given enough time, its 1.55 d orbital period will decay to shorter periods (Saffer, Liebert, and Olszewski 1988). GP Com, AM CVn, V803 Cen, and PG1346+082 are interacting binary white dwarfs with orbital periods between 1051 s for AM CVn and 46.5 min for GP Com (Nather, Robinson, and Stover 1981; Solheim et al. 1984; Wood et al. 1987; O’Donoghue and Kilkenny 1988). These ultrashort period systems must be descendents of detached pairs of white dwarfs. We also expect short-period binary white dwarfs to exist for theoretical reasons. All calculations of the evolution of binary stars show that main-sequence binaries can evolve to binary white dwarfs (e.g., Iben and Tutukov 1984). Among Population I stars, 1/2 to 2/3 of all main-sequence stars are binaries and about 20% of these binaries should become double white dwarfs with short orbital periods (Abt 1983, Iben and Tutukov 1986). Thus, about 1/10 of all white dwarfs could be close binaries (Paczynski 1985). Nevertheless, no detached binary white dwarfs with extremely short periods have yet been found.
The linear polarization of the Crab pulsar as a function of pulse phase was observed by the High Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope in March, 1993. Observations were obtained in a bandpass centered on 2770 A using a 0.25 ms sample time, corresponding to a time resolution of 0.0075 in pulse phase. The UV polarization of the pulsar [Fig. 1] is strikingly similar to that observed in the visible (cf. Smith et al. 1988). The same values of polarization and the same swing of position angle occur through the main and secondary pulses. The polarization pulse profile must be essentially wavelength independent at frequencies above the infrared.
To understand the structure and evolution of the cataclysmic variables, we will need accurate values for their masses, dimensions, mass transfer rates, and other physical properties. Unfortunately, despite an abundance of observational data on these systems, there is a severe dearth of reliable, quantitative information about their fundamental physical properties. Only two cataclysmic variables, U Gem and EM Cyg, are simultaneously eclipsing binaries and double-lined spectroscopic binaries, and only for these two systems can masses and dimensions be determined with a minimum of assumptions (Stover 1981a; Stover, Robinson, and Nather 1981). Even if there were more systems like U Gem and EM Cyg, it is not obvious that our information would be any more reliable, because observers are often unable to agree on the values of the directly measured quantities used to determine physical properties. Thus, the radial velocity curve of the brightest dwarf nova, SS Cyg, has been measured independently 5 times in the last 30 years. The agreement among the measurements is unsatisfactory, and the reasons for the disagreement are not completely understood (Joy 1956; Kiplinger 1979; Stover et al. 1980; Cowley, Crampton, and Hutchings 1980; Walker 1981). The physical properties may still be unreliable when the disagreements are understood and eliminated, because there is considerable uncertainty about the proper way to extract physical properties from observational data. For example, the observed radial velocity curves of cataclysmic variables are believed to be different from the true radial velocity curves of their component stars, but the amount of difference and ways to correct for the difference are unknown.