A field investigation was conducted to determine the influence of pendimethalin [N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine] and trifluralin [2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine] herbicides on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Centennial’] — Bradyrhizobium japonicum symbiosis. Pendimethalin and trifluralin applied at rates of 1.1, 1.7, and 2.2 kg ai/ha delayed emergence and injured soybean seedlings grown on an Olivier silt loam. Nodule number, dry weight, and nitrogen (N2) fixation measured by acetylene (C2H2) reduction were decreased by all herbicide rates during the vegetative growth stages in 1984, with occasional decreases in nodulation noted during the late reproductive growth stage. Seedling injury was less severe in 1985 than in 1984, with most injury occurring at 1.7 and 2.2 kg/ha for both herbicides. Nodule number and dry weight in 1985 were decreased from vegetative through the early reproductive growth stages with little influence on N2(C2H2) fixation. Inhibitory effects of the herbicides on nodulation and N2(C2H2) fixation did not influence seed formation since seed yield was not affected either year.