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Experiments were performed within Sandia National Labs’ Multiphase Shock Tube to measure and quantify the shock-induced dispersal of a shock/dense particle curtain interaction. Following interaction with a planar travelling shock wave, schlieren imaging at 75 kHz was used to track the upstream and downstream edges of the curtain. Data were obtained for two particle diameter ranges (
) across Mach numbers ranging from 1.24 to 2.02. Using these data, along with data compiled from the literature, the dispersion of a dense curtain was studied for multiple Mach numbers (1.2–2.6), particle sizes (
) and volume fractions (9–32 %). Data were non-dimensionalized according to two different scaling methods found within the literature, with time scales defined based on either particle propagation time or pressure ratio across a reflected shock. The data show that spreading of the particle curtain is a function of the volume fraction, with the effectiveness of each time scale based on the proximity of a given curtain’s volume fraction to the dilute mixture regime. It is seen that volume fraction corrections applied to a traditional particle propagation time scale result in the best collapse of the data between the two time scales tested here. In addition, a constant-thickness regime has been identified, which has not been noted within previous literature.
The resonance modes in Mach 0.94 turbulent flow over a cavity having a length-to-depth ratio of five were explored using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) and time-resolved pressure sensitive paint (TR-PSP). Mode switching was quantified in the velocity field simultaneous with the pressure field. As the mode number increased from one through three, the resonance activity moved from a region downstream within the recirculation region to areas further upstream in the shear layer, an observation consistent with linear stability analysis. The second and third modes contained organized structures associated with shear layer vortices. Coherent structures occurring in the velocity field during modes two and three exhibited a clear modulation in size with streamwise distance. The streamwise periodicity was attributable to the interference of downstream-propagating vortical disturbances with upstream-travelling acoustic waves. The coherent structure oscillations were approximately
out of phase with the modal surface pressure fluctuations, analogous to a standing wave. Modal propagation (or phase) velocities, based on cross-correlations of bandpass-filtered velocity fields were found for each mode. The phase velocities also showed streamwise periodicity and were greatest at regions of maximum constructive interference where coherent structures were the largest. Overall, the phase velocities increased with modal frequency, which coincided with the modal activity residing at higher portions of the cavity where the local mean flow velocity was elevated. Together, the TR-PIV and TR-PSP provide unique details not only on the distribution of modal activity throughout the cavity, but also new understanding of the resonance mechanism as observed in the velocity field.
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