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To determine the association of birth weight with obesity risk at first grade of high school in Chilean children after accounting for potential confounding factors.
National non-concurrent cohort of newborns. Sociodemographic information, height, weight and anthropometric measurements at first grade of high school were analysed. Birth weight was classified as macrosomia (≥4000 g), by gestational age and by ponderal index. The relationship between birth weight and obesity at first grade of high school (BMI ≥ 95th percentile of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's reference) was assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic information at delivery.
First grade of public high school of low and middle socio-economic status in the whole country (about 77 % of Chilean children in this age group).
Newborns (n 119 070) and the same number of high-school students.
A positive relationship of high ponderal index (OR = 1·86, 95 % CI 1·69, 2·03), birth weight ≥4000 g (OR = 1·66, 95 % CI 1·54, 1·78) and large for gestational age (OR = 1·69, 95 % CI 1·58, 1·81) with obesity at adolescence (P < 0·001) was found. Macrosomic children had a higher risk of being obese at first grade of high school after controlling for prenatal confounding variables (OR = 1·63, 95 % CI 1·52, 1·76; P < 0·001).
A direct relationship between high birth weight and obesity at first grade of high school was observed in this group of Chilean children. The results highlight the significance of birth weight as a simple tool to be used as an indicator of obesity risk for children by health-care providers.
The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of pregnant women in Colombia and the associations between gestational BMI and sociodemographic and gestational characteristics.
Cross-sectional study. A secondary analysis was made of data from the 2005 Demographic and Health Survey of Colombia.
Pregnant adolescents aged 13–19 years (n 430) and pregnant women aged 20–49 years (n 1272).
The gestational BMI and sociodemographic characteristics of the adolescents differed from those of the pregnant adult women. Thirty-one per cent of the adolescents were underweight for gestational age, compared with 14·5 % of the adult women. Eighteen per cent of adolescents were overweight for gestational age, in contrast to 37·3 % of adult women. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 44·7 % and the prevalence of low serum ferritin was 38·8 %. Women within the high quintiles of the wealth index (prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 0·56; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·91, P < 0·02) had lower odds of being underweight. Women who received prenatal care (POR = 2·17; 95 % CI 1·48, 3·09, P < 0·001) and were multiparous (POR = 2·10; 95 % CI 1·43, 3·15, P < 0·0 0 1) had higher odds of being overweight. Women in extended families (POR = 0·63; 95 % CI 0·50, 0·95, P < 0·025) had lower odds of being overweight.
Underweight in pregnant adolescents and overweight in adult women coexist as a double burden in Colombia. Factors associated with malnutrition among pregnant women and adolescents should be considered for future interventions in countries experiencing nutritional transition.
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