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Pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty is a safe and effective treatment for children with pulmonary valve stenosis. A few studies evaluate the long-term outcomes of the procedure, particularly the degree of pulmonary regurgitation. We evaluated the outcomes of children >1 year following valvuloplasty for pulmonary valve stenosis.
A retrospective analysis of children with pulmonary valve stenosis following pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty at a single institution was performed. Clinic summaries, catheterisation data, and echocardiographic data were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were isolated pulmonary valve stenosis, age <19 years at the time of intervention, and at least one echocardiogram performed at least 1 year after valvuloplasty.
A total of 53 patients met inclusion criteria. The median age at valvuloplasty was 0.4 years (0.01–10.6 years). The last follow-up was 4.8±2.3 years following valvuloplasty. The pre-valvuloplasty peak instantaneous gradient by echocardiography was 60.6±14.6 mmHg. The peak gradient at the first postoperative echocardiography was reduced to 25.5±12 mmHg (p<0.001), and further decreased to 14.8±15.8 mmHg (p<0.001) at the most recent follow-up. The degree of regurgitation increased from before valvuloplasty to after valvuloplasty (p<0.001) but did not progress at the most recent follow-up (p=0.17). Only three patients (5.7%) required re-intervention for increasing pulmonary stenosis (two surgical; one repeat balloon). No significant procedural complications occurred.
Pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty remains a safe and effective treatment for children with isolated pulmonary valve stenosis, with excellent long-term outcomes and no mortality. A few patients require further intervention. Long-term follow-up demonstrates decreased, residual stenosis. Patients have a small, acute increase in pulmonary regurgitation following valvuloplasty, but no long-term progression.
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