Energetic particles in the magnetospheres of the solar system originate from various different sources, such as the solar wind, the planetary ionospheres as well as the moons and rings of the planetary systems. Important acceleration sites are the auroral regions, the magnetotail, and the equatorial regions of the magnetospheres where electric fields, wave-particle interactions and magnetic pumping are among the major acceleration mechanisms proposed. Over the last decade mass- and charge-sensitive particle spectrometers on satellites and space probes have collected a wealth of information about the relative contribution of the various particle sources and the major acceleration processes to the energetic particle populations. Emphasis will be put on recent studies of the source populations and the acceleration processes in the Earth’s auroral zones and magnetotail. Furthermore, the Jovian system with the largest magnetosphere and its unique mixture of particle sources with strong contributions from moons will be highlighted in some results from Ulysses.
Subject headings: acceleration of particles — planets and satellites: general