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The role of children’s verbal repetition of parents’ utterances on vocabulary growth has been well documented (Masur, 1999). Nevertheless, few studies have analyzed adults’ and children’s spontaneous verbal repetition around the second birthday distinguishing between the types of repetition. We analyzed longitudinally Spanish-speaking parent-child dyads during spontaneous interaction at 21, 24 and 30 months. Linguistic level was measured using the Spanish version of the MacArthur CDI (López-Ornat et al., 2005). Children’s and adults’ repetitions are about 17% of the speech. Children repeated adults’ utterances in a reduced manner whereas adults produced more extended repetitions. Adults’ rate of repetition predicted children’s linguistic level at 30 months. Children’s rate of repetition did not predict linguistic level. These results suggest that parents adapt their speech to children’s communicative abilities. Since children’s rate of repetition did not predict linguistic level, we suggest that verbal imitation plays an indirect and complex role in communicative development.
The Regordosa-Turull wax cylinder collection, held at the Biblioteca de Catalunya, Barcelona, is unique among early recording collections. It contains 358 cylinders recorded by the textile industrialist Ruperto Regordosa, mostly at his Barcelona home, featuring prominent Spanish and non-Spanish singers of opera and zarzuela, as well as the composer Isaac Albéniz. This article aims to establish the significance of the collection for the study both of the amateur recording culture that existed alongside commercial phonograph recordings and of performance practices in opera and zarzuela. By examining the broader characteristics of the collection and textual sources from the period, and by closely analysing some of the cylinders, this article explores how Regordosa adopted (and in some cases adapted) certain generic conventions employed in commercial recordings of the time, and what the implications of this are when considering these early recordings as documents of performance practice.
The ‘jumping to conclusions’ (JTC) bias is associated with both psychosis and general cognition but their relationship is unclear. In this study, we set out to clarify the relationship between the JTC bias, IQ, psychosis and polygenic liability to schizophrenia and IQ.
A total of 817 first episode psychosis patients and 1294 population-based controls completed assessments of general intelligence (IQ), and JTC, and provided blood or saliva samples from which we extracted DNA and computed polygenic risk scores for IQ and schizophrenia.
The estimated proportion of the total effect of case/control differences on JTC mediated by IQ was 79%. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score was non-significantly associated with a higher number of beads drawn (B = 0.47, 95% CI −0.21 to 1.16, p = 0.17); whereas IQ PRS (B = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25–0.76, p < 0.001) significantly predicted the number of beads drawn, and was thus associated with reduced JTC bias. The JTC was more strongly associated with the higher level of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in controls, including after controlling for IQ (B = −1.7, 95% CI −2.8 to −0.5, p = 0.006), but did not relate to delusions in patients.
Our findings suggest that the JTC reasoning bias in psychosis might not be a specific cognitive deficit but rather a manifestation or consequence, of general cognitive impairment. Whereas, in the general population, the JTC bias is related to PLEs, independent of IQ. The work has the potential to inform interventions targeting cognitive biases in early psychosis.
This chapter examines how the documenting and reflecting on current musical life carried out by two Spanish music critics whose careers spanned most of the twentieth century – Adolfo Salazar (1890–1958) and Federico Sopeña (1917–91) – provided a crucial foundation for the historiography of Spanish music after 1900. For decades, Salazar and Sopeña have shaped our thinking about Spanish twentieth-century music; their works are still regarded as authoritative to a considerable extent and they are frequently cited as secondary sources in studies of Spanish music. Indeed, it is only in the last decade that their writings and biographies have started to be examined with a view to identifying and critiquing the master narratives they crafted to present and explain Spanish music of the twentieth century: the music they were immersed in and, in some cases, turned into history almost from the moment they heard it for the first time.
Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are characterized by neurocognitive and functional deficits with marked heterogeneity. It has been suggested that BD with a history of psychotic symptoms (BD-P) could constitute a phenotypically homogeneous subtype characterized by greater neurocognitive and functional impairments, or by a distinct trajectory of such deficits. The aim of this study was to compare the neurocognitive and functional course of euthymic BD-P, euthymic BD patients without a history of psychosis (BD-NP), stabilized patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects, during a five-year follow-up.
Neurocognitive and psychosocial function was examined in 100 euthymic patients with BD (50 BD-P, 50 BD-NP), 50 stabilized patients with schizophrenia (SZ), and 51 healthy controls (HC) at baseline (T1), and after a 5-year follow-up (T2).
The course of both neurocognitive performance and functional outcome of patients with SZ and BD (BD-P and BD-NP) is stable. The profile of neurocognitive impairment of patients with SZ or BD (BD-P and BD-NP), is similar, with only quantitative differences circumscribed to certain domains, such as working memory. The subgroup of patients with BD-NP does not show functional deterioration.
We have not found evidence of progression in the neurocognitive or psychosocial impairment in any of the three groups of patients, although it cannot be dismissed the possibility of a subset of patients with a progressive course. Other longitudinal studies with larger samples and longer duration are necessary to confirm these findings.
To examine timing of eating across ten European countries.
Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00–14.00 and 15.00–24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake.
Ten Western European countries.
In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
A south–north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05).
We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.
The understanding of the 14C behavior in waste packages could lead, in the Spanish context, to a revision of the management strategies for radioactive waste and a revaluation of the near surface repository devoted to the disposal of waste containing this radionuclide in high concentrations. To achieve this objective, and in the context of the EU project Carbon-14 Source Term (CAST), the authors of the work presented in this paper have performed leaching experiments with irradiated graphite considering two different scenarios. One, in which the leaching solution simulates some of the expected conditions in a repository where a granite/bentonite mixture has been used as backfill material, and the other, using deionized water as a high efficiency chemical removal agent and for comparison purposes. The analytical approach to measure the release rate and speciation of 14C from irradiated graphite samples in the aqueous and gaseous phase is also described. The main results obtained shows that, after 359 days of leaching, no 14C activity was detected above the detection limits, and only leaching rates regarding beta-gamma emitters were observed: 2×10–6 cm/day for 137Cs and 1×10–5 cm/day for 60Co in granite/bentonite water media and 4×10–6 cm/day for 137Cs in pure water.
The neurocognitive trajectory in bipolar disorder (BD) is variable, with controversial findings, and most evidence come from cross-sectional studies. We aimed to examine the course of neurocognitive functioning in a sample of euthymic BD patients in comparison with a control group during a 5-year follow-up.
Ninety-nine euthymic bipolar patients and 40 healthy controls were assessed using a comprehensive neurocognitive battery (six neurocognitive domains) at baseline (T1) and then at 5-year follow-up (T2) in a longitudinal study.
No evidence of a progression in neurocognitive dysfunction was found either in cognitive composite index or in any of the neurocognitive domains for the whole cohort. However, there was a negative correlation between number of manic episodes and hospitalisations due to manic episodes and change in neurocognitive composite index (NCI) during the follow-up. Moreover, patients with higher number of manic and hypomanic episodes have a greater decrease in NCI, working memory and visual memory. History of psychotic symptoms was not related to the trajectory of neurocognitive impairment.
Our results suggest that, although the progression of cognitive decline is not a general rule in BD, BD patients who have a greater number of manic or hypomanic episodes may constitute a subgroup characterised by the progression of neurocognitive impairment. Prevention of manic and hypomanic episodes could have a positive impact on the trajectory of cognitive function.
In Argentina's Southern Patagonian region one often hears that the Tehuelche people were the “only” and the “true Argentine Indians,” that they “became extinct [se extinguieron],” and that only a handful of “descendants” remain. Paradoxically, this utterance (“se extinguieron”) – in the passive voice, with no subject, in which there seems to be no agent responsible for the alleged extinction – takes place in a context of the re-emergence of the Tehuelche people and of an indigenous communitarian reorganization that involves the Tehuelche, as well as the Mapuche and Mapuche-Tehuelche. The supposed “disappearance” of the Tehuelche is the result of interrelated discourses and practices that a range of agents constructed and deployed over the course of more than a century, in which the ideology of “degenerative mestizaje” played a central role. In this chapter I argue that in the mid-twentieth century, the Argentine state, in its eagerness to “whiten” and homogenize its citizenry, suppressed the category mestizo (a term traditionally referring to people of mixed European and indigenous origins) from its bureaucratic terminology and replaced it with euphemisms – notably, the term descendiente [descendant] – that encompassed a range of interrelated racial, ethnic, class, and national classifications. Using a varied documentary corpus, this chapter analyzes the changing uses of classificatory terms like “mestizo” and “descendiente” over the course of the long twentieth century in what is today the province of Santa Cruz, in Southern Patagonia. In so doing, it sheds light on the tensions between those who had the power to classify and those who were classified, on the strategies used by the latter to enter or to exit taxonomic categories, and on the consequences of those categories in the daily lives of generations of local people who at different times acknowledged varying degrees of indigenous ancestry. Finally, this chapter contributes, from the perspective of Patagonia, to the emerging picture of the regional variations within Argentine ideologies of whiteness, and situates these regional and national ideologies within a broader Latin American context.
Latin American ideologies of mestizaje and whitening, as well as ideologies of racism, have varied widely across time and space, reflecting different patterns in the ways colonial and then national elites constructed hegemony and subalternity. As anthropologist Rita Segato argues, racial ideologies vary according to the particular “matrix of diversity” within every “national formation.”
Studies of the Spanish Republican exile, both musicological and otherwise, have often worked under the assumption that the exiles were disconnected from Francoist Spain and were thus unable to contribute in any way to the musical life of their home country. This article re-examines these assumptions by analysing a hitherto unexplored corpus of correspondence between two exiled musicians, Julián Bautista and Adolfo Salazar, and other musicians who had stayed in Francoist Spain. Such correspondence suggests that the exiles could, and indeed did, contribute to Spanish musical life under Francoism in a variety of ways.
Sea-cage fish farms impact the seabed within their immediate vicinity, potentially affecting recipient communities. We assessed whether proximity to three sea-cage fish farms at the Canary Islands altered patterns in the abundance, assemblage structure and richness of soft-bottom macrofauna. We related among-farm variability in dissimilarities in macrofaunal assemblage structure between seabeds beneath cages and controls to differences in hydrodynamics, production and seabed topography. Contrasting patterns of species abundances with varying proximity to fish farms were observed: some species decreased while other species increased their abundances with increasing distance at some farms. Although faunal assemblages at 0 m (i.e. beneath the cages) were different, in terms of assemblage structure, from those found at controls, pairwise differences in assemblage structure among distances away varied among the studied fish farms. Species richness showed inconsistent patterns with proximity to cages among fish farms. In summary, inconsistent patterns of macrofaunal assemblages with varying proximity to aquaculture facilities preclude confident predictions on the way offshore aquaculture alters macrofauna in the study region.
Despite knowledge of amygdala involvement in fear and anxiety, its contribution to the pathophysiology of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) remains controversial. In the context of neuroimaging studies, it seems likely that the heterogeneity of the disorder might have contributed to a lack of consistent findings.
To assess the influence of OCD symptom dimensions on amygdala responses to a well-validated emotional face-matching paradigm.
Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of 67 patients with OCD and 67 age-, gender- and education-level matched healthy controls.
The severity of aggression/checking and sexual/religious symptom dimensions were significantly associated with heightened amygdala activation in those with OCD when responding to fearful faces, whereas no such correlations were seen for other symptom dimensions.
Amygdala functional alterations in OCD appear to be specifically modulated by symptom dimensions whose origins may be more closely linked to putative amygdala-centric processes, such as abnormal fear processing.
Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists are widely used as pharmacological models of schizophrenia due to their ability to evoke the symptoms of the illness. Likewise, serotonergic hallucinogens, acting on 5-HT2A receptors, induce perceptual and behavioural alterations possibly related to psychotic symptoms. The neurobiological basis of these alterations is not fully elucidated. Data obtained in recent years revealed that the NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) and the serotonergic hallucinogen 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane; DOI) produce a series of common actions in rodent prefrontal cortex (PFC) that may underlie psychotomimetic effects. Hence, both agents markedly disrupt PFC function by altering pyramidal neuron discharge (with an overall increase) and reducing the power of low frequency cortical oscillations (LFCO; < 4 Hz). In parallel, PCP increased c-fos expression in excitatory neurons of various cortical areas, the thalamus and other subcortical structures, such as the amygdala. Electrophysiological studies revealed that PCP altered similarly the function of the centromedial and mediodorsal nuclei of the thalamus, reciprocally connected with PFC, suggesting that its psychotomimetic properties are mediated by an alteration of thalamocortical activity (the effect of DOI was not examined in the thalamus). Interestingly, the observed effects were prevented or reversed by the antipsychotic drugs clozapine and haloperidol, supporting that the disruption of PFC activity is intimately related to the psychotomimetic activity of these agents. Overall, the present experimental model can be successfully used to elucidate the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia symptoms and to examine the potential antipsychotic activity of new drugs in development.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.