Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
People who experience sexual violence are highly likely to experience psychological and/or mental health (MH) problems as a result. People who use MH services often have a history of sexual assault and are also likely to be revictimised as an adult. Yet despite there being a very clear association, MH services are not yet performing routine enquiry, and even if they do, are not confident about how to record and manage disclosures. There is some emerging evidence that people with MH problems are exposed to sexual violence in inpatient MH settings, perpetrated by both other patients or members of staff. In this editorial, we explore the evidence to support a wider focus on sexual violence as a part of routine care, as well as some recommendations about how staff can more effectively discuss sexual issues including that of sexual victimisation.
The detection and monitoring of meltwater within firn presents a significant monitoring challenge. We explore the potential of small wireless sensors (ETracer+, ET+) to measure temperature, pressure, electrical conductivity and thus the presence or absence of meltwater within firn, through tests in the dry snow zone at the East Greenland Ice Core Project site. The tested sensor platforms are small, robust and low cost, and communicate data via a VHF radio link to surface receivers. The sensors were deployed in low-temperature firn at the centre and shear margins of an ice stream for 4 weeks, and a ‘bucket experiment’ was used to test the detection of water within otherwise dry firn. The tests showed the ET+ could log subsurface temperatures and transmit the recorded data through up to 150 m dry firn. Two VHF receivers were tested: an autonomous phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder (ApRES) and a WinRadio. The ApRES can combine high-resolution imaging of the firn layers (by radio-echo sounding) with in situ measurements from the sensors, to build up a high spatial and temporal resolution picture of the subsurface. These results indicate that wireless sensors have great potential for long-term monitoring of firn processes.
The present study examined the energy (kilojoule) content of Australian fast-food menu items over seven years, before and after introduction of menu board labelling, to determine the impact of the introduction of the legislation.
Analysis of the median energy contents per serving and per 100g of fast-food menu items. Change in energy content of menu items across the years surveyed and differences in energy content of standard and limited-time only menu items were analysed.
Five of Australia’s largest fast food chains: Hungry Jack’s, KFC, McDonald’s, Oporto and Red Rooster.
All standard and limited-time only menu items available at each fast-food chain, collected annually for seven years, 2009–2015.
Although some fast-food chains/menu item categories had significant increases in the energy contents of their menus at some time points during the 7-year period, overall there were no significant or systematic decreases in energy following the introduction of menu labelling (P=0·19 by +17 kJ/100 g, P=0·83 by +8 kJ/serving). Limited-time only items were significantly higher in median energy content per 100 g than standard menu items (+74 kJ/100 g, P=0·002).
While reformulation across the entire Australian fast-food supply has the potential to positively influence population nutrient intake, the introduction of menu labelling legislation in New South Wales, Australia did not lead to reduced energy contents across the five fast-food chains. To encourage widespread reformulation by the fast-food industry and enhance the impact of labelling legislation, the government should work with industry to set targets for reformulation of nutrient content.
To assess and develop consensus among experienced public health nutrition practitioners from high-income countries regarding conceptualisation of capacity building in practice, and to test the content validity of a previously published conceptual framework for capacity building in public health nutrition practice.
A Delphi study involving three iterations of email-delivered questionnaires testing a range of capacity determinants derived from the literature. Consensus was set at >50 % of panellists ranking items as ‘very important’ on a five-point Likert scale across three survey rounds.
Public health nutrition practice in Australia, the UK, Canada and the USA.
Public health nutrition practitioners and academics.
A total of thirty expert panellists (68 % of an initial panel of forty-four participants) completed all three rounds of Delphi questionnaires. Consensus identified determinants of capacity building in practice including partnerships, resourcing, community development, leadership, workforce development, intelligence and quality of project management.
The findings from the study suggest there is broad agreement among public health nutritionists from high-income countries about how they conceptualise capacity building in public health nutrition practice. This agreement suggests considerable content validity for a capacity building conceptual framework proposed by Baillie et al. (Public Health Nutr12, 1031–1038). More research is needed to apply the conceptual framework to the implementation and evaluation of strategies that enhance the practice of capacity building approaches by public health nutrition professionals.
Seven taxa including three new species of Mallacoota are reported from the South Pacific locations of Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia and the Kermadec Islands. Mallacoota mizegwaden sp. nov. was collected from Papua New Guinea, and M. lifou sp. nov. and M. xepenehe sp. nov. from New Caledonia including the Loyalty Islands. Additional material of M. nananui Myers, 1985 is identified from New Caledonia, supporting previous records by Ledoyer, 1984. Three species, Mallacoota capricornia Lowry & Hughes, 2009; M. chiltoni Kilgallen & Ahyong, 2011 and M. sirius Hughes, 2011 are reported from the Kermadec Islands. There are now 33 known species of Mallacoota, with 19 species occurring in tropical to subtropical waters.
Spinel (MgAl2O4) single crystals which had been neutron irradiated at (nominally) 400 and 750°C to high doses (53-250 dpa) were examined using 27Al magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The sensitivity of this procedure to a specific cation (Al) residing in different crystallographic environments allowed us to determine the distribution of the Al between the tetrahedral and octahedral cation sites in the spinel structure. Our results indicate that the Al was distributed nearly equally over both cation sites in the spinel, resulting in a nearly inverse structure.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with neuropsychological impairments across multiple domains, but consensus regarding the cognitive profile of PTSD has not been reached. In this study of women with PTSD related to intimate partner violence (n = 55) and healthy, demographically similar comparison participants (NCs; n = 20), we attempted to control for many potential confounds in PTSD samples. All participants were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery emphasizing executive functioning, including inhibition, switching, and abstraction. NCs outperformed PTSD participants on most neuropsychological measures, but the differences were significant only on speeded tasks (with and without executive functioning components). The PTSD group’s mean performance was within the average range on all neuropsychological tests. Within the PTSD group, more severe PTSD symptoms were associated with slower processing speed, and more severe dissociative symptoms were associated with poorer reasoning performance. These results suggest that women with PTSD related to intimate partner violence demonstrate slower than normal processing speed, which is associated with the severity of psychiatric symptoms. We speculate that the cognitive slowing seen in PTSD may be attributable to reduced attention due to a need to allocate resources to cope with psychological distress or unpleasant internal experiences. (JINS, 2009, 15, 879–887.)
To describe a conceptual framework to assist in the application of capacity-building principles to public health nutrition practice.
A review of the literature and consideration of the determinants of effective public health nutrition practice has been used to inform the development of a conceptual framework for capacity building in the context of public health nutrition practice.
The limited literature supports a greater integration and application of capacity-building strategies and principles in public health nutrition practice, and that this application should be overt and strategic. A framework is proposed that identifies a number of determinants of capacity for effective public health nutrition action. The framework represents the key foundations for building capacity including leadership, resourcing and intelligence. Five key strategic domains supported by these foundation elements, including partnerships, organisational development, project management quality, workforce development and community development, are proposed. This framework can be used to assist the systematic assessment, development and evaluation of capacity-building activity within public health nutrition practice.
Capacity building is a strategy within public health nutrition practice that needs to be central to public health nutrition intervention management. The present paper defines, contextualises and outlines a framework for integrating and making explicit the importance of capacity building within public health nutrition practice at many levels.
Competition plays an important role in invasion dynamics. According to Elton's biodiversity and invasibility hypothesis, non-native species must be competitively superior to the resident species in order to successfully invade. An invader that is ecologically similar to a native species may cause intense interspecific competition as they both require the same resource. Furthermore, an increase in the density of an invading competitor may enhance the intensity of the competitive interaction, however, this may be reduced if the inferior competitor has a refuge that reduces the amount of time it is in direct contact with the superior competitor. In laboratory-based competition experiments between the non-native caprellid Caprella mutica and two ecologically similar native caprellids Caprella linearis and Pseudoprotella phasma, C. mutica successfully displaced both species from homogeneous artificial habitat patches after 48 hours. Patches that contained a refuge reduced the number of C. linearis being displaced but only when C. mutica was at a low density. Potentially aggressive interactions between C. mutica and the native C. linearis may have caused C. linearis to be displaced from the patches and could have caused significantly higher mortality of C. linearis compared to the controls. This is the first study to show that the non-native C. mutica has the ability to displace ecologically similar native species when the resource space is limited and when the density of C. mutica was significantly (10 times) lower than the density of C. linearis.
Guatemala is a country severely affected by malnutrition, particularly in its child population. The present study aimed to assess the impact of recognised aetiological factors on the prevalence of malnutrition and to establish the efficacy of a Guatemalan malnutrition clinic by examining the changes in the prevalence of malnutrition in the ten surrounding communities served by the clinic.
Records of children (n 7681) aged 5–16 years seen by the clinic between 2004 and 2006 were examined. Anthropometric data for each child were taken from these records and used as an indicator for their nutritional status to estimate the change in rates of malnutrition during this period.
An overall reduction was seen in all forms of malnutrition over the 3-year period, although over 50 % of the study population remained malnourished in 2006. A consistent reduction was also seen in rates of moderate and severe malnutrition, but not in rates of mild malnutrition.
The results demonstrate that clinics such as Primeros Pasos can have a beneficial effect on schoolchildren, particularly those who are severely malnourished. A need has been highlighted for more research in this area, particularly how clinics such as Primeros Pasos can be best used in the fight against malnutrition.
Elizabeth Murray, General Practitioner and Reader in Primary Care, Royal Free and University College, Medical School London,
James Oliver, Substance Abuse Counsellor Lonsdale Medical Centre, London,
Avril Danczak, General Practitioner and GP Tutor and Trainer Manchester Primary Care Trust,
Mike Cheshire, Consultant Physician in Medicine Elderly, Central Manchester and Manchester, Children's Hospital Trust,
Joanne Protheroe, General Practitioner and Clinical Research Fellow, Primary Care Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, University of Manchester,
David Challis, Professor of Community Care Research,
Jane Hughes, Lecturer in Community Care Research, Personal Social Services Research Unit, University of Manchester,
Greta Rait, General Practitioner and Senior Lecturer Primary Care, Royal Free University College, Medical School, London,
Ahmed I. Lambat, Manager and Social Work Practice Teacher, Manchester
The next commentaries illustrate the management of patients with increasingly complex problems where the management needs to be integrated with other professionals.
Hidden alcohol consumption
Mrs Ruth M is a 79-year-old lady who attends the practice infrequently, only when she needs her blood checking for thyroid function (she has been on thyroxine for 10 years) and her flu vaccine with the practice nurse. She makes an appointment with her GP as she has been feeling really run down recently and wonders if the dose of thyroxine needs changing. She is having difficulty sleeping and has tended to withdraw from her usual activities (going to the library and reading, meeting her friends for a drink in their local pub). She admits to the GP that she does ‘enjoy a tipple’ and feels that she might have been drinking more than usual in the past few months. She often has a drink with her mid-morning coffee as it stops her feeling so awful, and she has always had a couple of whiskies in the evening to help her sleep, but that doesn't seem to be working at the moment.
What factors should be taken into account in the assessment of this patient's mood?
How should Mrs RM be investigated?
Who might the GP work with in the management of this patient?
Mrs RM has probably found it difficult to admit to feeling low and run down, and is likely to have delayed coming to the doctor.
Hugh T. Blair, Department of Psycology University of California 1285 Franz Hall Box 951563 Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563,
Karim Nader, Department of Psychology McGill University Canada Stewart Biological Sciences Building Room N8/8, 398-3511 1205 Dr Penfield Avenue Montreal, Quebec, H3 A 1B1,
Glenn E. Schafe, Department of Psychology and Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Program Yale University 2 Hillhouse Avenue New Haven, Connecticut 06511-6814,
Elizabeth P. Bauer, W. M. Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology Center for Neural Science 6 Washington Place, Room 276 New York University New York, NY 10003,
Sarina M. Rodrigues, W. M. Keck Foundation Laboratory of Neurobiology Center for Neural Science New York University New York, New York 10003,
Joseph E. LeDoux, University Professor; Professor of Neural Science and Psychology Center for Neural Science New York University 4 Washington Place, Room 809 New York, NY 10003
Classical fear conditioning is a form of associative learning in which subjects are trained to express fear responses to a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) that is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). As a result of such pairing, the CS comes to elicit behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine responses that are characteristically expressed in the presence of danger (Blanchard & Blanchard, 1969; Bolles & Fanselow, 1980; Smith et al., 1980). Fear conditioning has emerged as an especially useful behavioral model for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of learning and memory, because fear memories are rapidly acquired and long-lasting, involve well-defined stimuli and responses, and depend upon similar neural circuits in different vertebrate species (see Davis & Lee, 1998; LeDoux, 2000; Maren, 1999; Rogan et al., 2001).
In this chapter, we review studies that have investigated the role of the amygdala in fear learning. We argue that neural plasticity in the lateral amygdala is critical for storing memories of the association between the CS and US during fear conditioning, and discuss how learning and memory are achieved at the cellular or molecular level. Alternative views of amygdala contributions to fear conditioning are also considered.
The amygdala and fear conditioning
Fear learning depends critically upon the amygdala (Davis & Shi, 2000; Fendt & Fanselow, 1999; LeDoux, 1996, 2000), a cluster of nuclei in the brain's temporal lobe that plays a key role in regulating emotions (Kluver & Bucy, 1939; LeDoux, 1996).