The abundance and distribution of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in Late Valencia citrus orchards and other alternative host crops was investigated using trimedlure-baited traps at the University of Ghana's Agricultural Research Centre in the Eastern region of Ghana. The effect of some climatic factors on the population dynamics of the pest was also studied. The population of C. capitata increased from September to October 2006 and from February to March 2007, when Late Valencia citrus fruits were ripening or ripened. The fruit fly population was the lowest from November 2006 to January 2007 when citrus fruits were in the immature green stage. Ceratitis capitata was not trapped in mango, pawpaw and pepper fields and did not emerge from fruits of these crops. Multiple regression analyses also revealed that rainfall and temperature significantly influenced the pest population. The results of this study have important implications on the decision-making process for the safe, effective monitoring and management of C. capitata in Late Valencia citrus orchards in the study area in Ghana and probably in other areas as well.