This study investigated the epidemiological factors that contribute to the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. in children from Paraná state, Brazil. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to T. gondii were detected using indirect immunofluorescence, and IgG antibodies to Toxocara were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For each individual, a questionnaire was completed that contained epidemiological and clinical data. The data analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression. Of the 544 children investigated, 3.2% presented co-infection with T. gondii and Toxocara spp. Of this total, 7.4% were positive for antibodies to T. gondii, and 25% were positive for antibodies to Toxocara spp. The presence of antibodies to Toxocara spp. increased the risk of T. gondii infection (P= 0.029). Children who were 1–8 years of age were less infected by T. gondii than those who were 9–12 years of age. The variables that influenced positivity for anti-Toxocara spp. were the origin of the children and contact with sand. Children with positive serology for Toxocara spp. presented more eosinophilia compared with those with non-reactive serology. Infection with both parasites reveals the need for preventive measures, such as guidance about modes of infection, parasite control and monitoring recreational areas.