Acephalic cysticercus (Ac), a rarely developed multilobulated and nonencysted form of larval Taenia, causes hydrocephalus or adhesive arachnoiditis in the ventricles and subarachnoidal space that often lead to fatal outcome in affected patients. Ac has been proposed to originate from T. solium on the basis of morphological features, while no molecular data supporting the presumption have been available. In the present study, we investigated the immunological properties as well as molecular characteristics of Ac that was obtained surgically from 6 patients. Immunoblotting of the cyst fluid from Ac samples demonstrated the constitutive expression of a T. solium metacestode (TsM) 10 kDa protein. Specific antibodies against the truncated 10 kDa protein, which appears to be species specific for TsM cysticercosis, were detected in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples of Ac patients. Nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) genes of Ac were almost identical to those of T. solium but differed substantially from those of the other Taenia species. In phylogenetic analysis, Ac clustered with T. solium in a well-supported clade. Our results strongly suggest that Ac may have originated from T. solium.