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Bearded sprangletop is a problematic weed in California rice production and few herbicides provide effective control. As control of bearded sprangletop has declined, grower suspicion of resistance to clomazone has increased, because of the continuous rice cropping system and herbicide dependence in the region. The objectives of this research were to confirm clomazone resistance in bearded sprangletop populations and determine the level of resistance. Seed from 21 suspected clomazone-resistant populations was collected from the California rice growing region. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine population sensitivity to clomazone. Clomazone was applied into the water to emerging seedlings. Plant ht and control of bearded sprangletop were recorded weekly for 3 wk, plants were then harvested, and dry weight was measured. Of the populations tested, 17 were susceptible and four (5%) were resistant to clomazone. A dose-response assay was conducted using eight doses ranging from an eighth of the full rate to 12 times the full rate. The three most resistant populations had resistant-to susceptible ratios of 1.25×, 2×, and 5× the labeled rate of clomazone. The use of clomazone in California rice production is beneficial; however, it should be used at the appropriate timing and as part of an herbicide program to prevent further development of clomazone resistance.
Bearded sprangletop is a problematic weed in California rice production. The objective of this research was to determine the response of two bearded sprangletop biotypes (clomazone-susceptible [S] and -resistant [R]) to flooding depth. A study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the California Rice Experiment Station in Biggs, CA, to evaluate the flooding tolerance of the two biotypes against 5-, 10-, and 20-cm continuous flooding depths. Plant emergence, plant height, panicles per plant, seed per panicle, 100-seed weight, and seed per plant data were collected. At the 5-cm flood depth, neither biotype was controlled, and the R biotype had 260% more emergence, produced 475% more panicles per plant, and 455% more seed per plant than the S biotype. With a 10-cm flood, only the R biotype survived flooding and produced more panicles per plant and seed per plant than any other flood depth–biotype combination evaluated. There was no emergence of either bearded sprangletop biotype at the 20-cm flood depth. Continuous flooding can still be used as a management tool to control bearded sprangletop; however, the depth of flooding appears to limit emergence of S biotypes at 5 cm and R biotypes at 10 cm, and completely inhibits growth of both biotypes at 20 cm. The results of this study indicate that clomazone-resistant bearded sprangletop is more likely to spread throughout the Sacramento Valley because this biotype can survive clomazone applications and can tolerate a standard 10-cm flood.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate whether a reduction in dietary crude protein (CP) and genotype affects animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass traits of beef cattle at different stages of the feedlot. Twenty-two Nellore and 22 crossbred F1 Angus × Nellore (Nellore: 8 months, initial body weight (iBW) = 212.7 kg; Crossbred: 8 months, iBW = 226.1 kg) were used in this experiment. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design with six replicates, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. The factors were two genotypes (Nellore and Crossbred) and three CP concentrations (100, 120 and 140 g/kg dry matter [DM]). The experimental period lasted 224 day, being divided into two stages (Backgrounding = 112 day, and Finishing = 112 day). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered to evaluate their carcass characteristics. Similar patterns were observed during backgrounding and finishing phases on intake and average daily gain (ADG) regarding genotype. Intakes of DM, organic matter, CP, neutral detergent fibre, non-fibre carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients, ADG (kg/day) and feed efficiency were greater in Crossbred animals than Nellore in both phases. During the backgrounding phase, dietary CP did not influence DM intake. However, a linear effect of CP on ADG was observed in the backgrounding phase. During finishing, Nellore cattle fed 100 g CP/kg DM presented lower ADG than Nellore fed 120 and 140 g CP/kg DM. Crossbred animals were heavier than Nellore at the beginning and end of the trial. Crossbred animals also gained more carcass, retained more CP and fat, and had a greater subcutaneous fat thickness during the experiment compared with Nellore. There was a quadratic effect of dietary CP on retained CP and dressing. The current study found that crossbred animals (F1 Angus × Nellore) not only had greater performance, but also better carcass traits compared with Nellore, representing an option for increasing productivity. Also, it is possible to adjust diets according to phase. During the backgrounding stage, 140 g CP/kg DM should be used, being reduced to 120 g CP/kg DM during the finishing stage of feedlot for Nellore and to 100 g CP/kg DM for Crossbred, without affecting performance adversely.
The canine golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) model is the best animal model for studying Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans. Considering the importance of glucose metabolism in the muscles, the existence of metabolic and endocrine alterations in a wide range of muscular dystrophies, and the pre-existing relationship between blood insulin concentration and muscular atrophy, the present study aimed to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response in GRMD dogs. A total of eighteen golden retriever dogs were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: healthy/control (G1), female GRMD carriers (G2), and male dogs affected by GRMD (G3). Higher plasma resting glucose levels (P = 0·0047) were seen in G2 and G3 compared with G1, as was the case for minimum (P = <0·0001), mean (P = 0·0002) and maximum (P = 0·0359) glucose values for G3 compared with G1. Fructosamine concentrations were in accordance with reference values found in the literature for dogs. Insulin levels were lower in G3 compared with G1 (P = 0·0065); however, there was no evidence of insulin resistance according to the homeostasis model assessment index values obtained. As for the evaluation of postprandial responses, fluctuations of glucose (P = 0·0007) and insulin (P = 0·0149) were observed in G1 and G2, while in G3 the values remained constant. The results allowed us to identify metabolic changes related to carbohydrate metabolism in GRMD dogs, highlighting the importance of adequate food management for these animals.
The albedo of seasonal snow cover plays an important role in the global climate system due to its influence on Earth's radiation budget and energy balance. Volunteer Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, and Snow-Albedo (CoCoRaHS-Albedo) observers collected 3249 individual daily albedo, snow depth and density measurements using standardized techniques at dozens of sites across New Hampshire, USA over four winter seasons. The data show that albedo increases rapidly with snow depth up to ~0.14 m. Multiple linear regression models using snowpack age, snow depth or density, and air temperature provide reasonable approximations of surface snow albedo during times of albedo decay. However, the linear models also reveal systematic biases that highlight an important non-linearity in snow albedo decay. Modeled albedo values are reasonably accurate within the range of 0.6–0.9, but exhibit a tendency to overestimate lower albedo values and underestimate higher albedo values. We hypothesize that rapid reduction in high albedo fresh snow results from a decrease in snow specific surface area, while during melt-events the presence of liquid water in the snowpack accelerates metamorphism and grain growth. We conclude that the CoCoRaHS-Albedo volunteer observer network provides useful snow albedo, depth and density measurements and serves as an effective model for future measurement campaigns.
As a measure to manage the climate impact of aviation, significant enhancements to aviation technologies and operations are necessary. When assessing these enhancements and their respective impacts on the climate, it is important that we also quantify the associated uncertainties. This is important to support an effective decision and policymaking process. However, such quantification of uncertainty is challenging, especially in a complex system that comprises multiple interacting components. The uncertainty quantification task can quickly become computationally intractable and cumbersome for one individual or group to manage. Recognizing the challenge of quantifying uncertainty in multicomponent systems, we utilize a divide-and-conquer approach, inspired by the decomposition-based approaches used in multidisciplinary analysis and optimization. Specifically, we perform uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis of our multicomponent aviation system in a decomposition-based manner. In this work, we demonstrate how to handle a high-dimensional multicomponent interface using sensitivity-based dimension reduction and a novel importance sampling method. Our results demonstrate that the decomposition-based uncertainty quantification approach can effectively quantify the uncertainty of a feed-forward multicomponent system for which the component models are housed in different locations and owned by different groups.
Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes are known to express furosemide (Lasix®)-sensitive P-type membrane Na+-ATPase. In the present study, furosemide activity was studied in intracellular amastigotes and infected BALB/c mice to investigate its efficacy in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Intracellular parasites, but not macrophages, were found to be sensitive to killing by furosemide (IC50 = 87 µmvs CC50 ≫ 1000 µm, respectively). Although furosemide did not induce nitric oxide production or intracellular pH changes in infected macrophages, it led to a significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. Freshly isolated tissue parasites expressed a high degree of Na+-ATPase activity that decreased with culture, indicative of a higher enzyme expression in amastigotes than in promastigotes. Both intraperitoneal and oral treatment of L. amazonensis-infected mice with furosemide dosages equivalent to that prescribed as a diuretic significantly reduced the parasite's growth compared with the situation in untreated mice. Combination with oral furosemide increased the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal treatment with sodium stibogluconate (SSG). To summarize, furosemide control of intracellular leishmanial growth by means of parasite Na+-ATPase inhibition, and macrophage ROS activation may help explain its sole and SSG-combined therapeutic effect against murine CL.
This observational study aims to investigate the microbiological quality of commercially prepared lightly cooked foods with a major component of food of animal origin and collected as would be served to a consumer. A total of 356 samples were collected from catering (92%), retail (7%) or producers (1%) and all were independent of known incidents of foodborne illness. Using standard methods, all samples were tested for: the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. and enumerated for levels of, Bacillus spp. including B. cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriacea and aerobic colony count (ACC). Results were interpreted as unsatisfactory, borderline or satisfactory according to the Health Protection Agency guidelines for assessing the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat foods placed on the market. Amongst all samples, 70% were classified as satisfactory, 18% were borderline and 12% were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality. Amongst the unsatisfactory samples, six (2%) were potentially injurious to health due to the presence of: Salmonella spp. (one duck breast); Campylobacter spp. (two duck breast and one chicken liver pâté); L. monocytogenes at 4·3 × 103 cfu (colony-forming units)/g (one duck confit with foie gras ballotin) and C. perfringens at 2·5 × 105 cfu/g (one chicken liver pâté). The remaining unsatisfactory samples were due to high levels of indicator E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae or ACC.
Henbit is a facultative broadleaf winter annual in the Lamiaceae family.
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors are primarily used to control a broad
spectrum of weeds, including henbit. During 2012 to 2013, field applications
of ALS-inhibiting herbicides were ineffective in controlling a henbit
population from Marion County, KS (MCK). To confirm field-evolved resistance
to ALS inhibitors, response of MCK henbit and a known susceptible henbit
population from Kansas (DPS) to varying doses of three different ALS
inhibitors were examined: chlorsulfuron, imazamox, and propoxycarbazone.
Results of the dose–response experiments suggest that the MCK population is
highly resistant to chlorsulfuron (resistance index [R/S] > 1,000) and
propoxycarbazone (R/S = 331) but is susceptible to imazamox. A full-length
ALS gene sequence obtained using the 5′- and 3′- rapid
amplification of complementary DNA ends approach revealed a
Pro197 to Arg point mutation (a common mutation that confers
resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, e.g., chlorsulfuron) in the MCK
henbit. No other known resistance-conferring mutations were found in the
study. Evolved resistance to major classes of ALS inhibitors in the MCK
henbit will reduce herbicide options for its control. To our knowledge, this
is the first case of evolution of herbicide resistance in henbit.
Epilepsy is a chronic disease often disabling, source of stigma and poor quality of life.
Determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with epilepsy and the associated factors.
We conducted a prospective, descriptive and analytical study among 20 patients followed for epilepsy in our department of neurology. The study was conducted from February to April 2015. We used a preestablished form to collect the socio-demographic and clinic profile of the patients. The assessment of anxiety and depression was made via the HADS “Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale” and the perceived health status via GHQ scale “General Health Questionnaire”.
The average age of our patients was 35.9 years. The average GHQ score was 27.7. It was higher in women without a statistically significant difference. It was positively correlated with the number of attacks during the last 12 months (P = 0.042), poor treatment adherence (P = 0.007), the feeling of disability (P = 0.021) and the feeling of stigma (P = 0.008). Anxiety was estimated in 35% of cases and 45% were depressed. Depression was significantly associated to the celibacy (P = 0.012), the feeling of stigma (P = 0.038) and the GHQ score (P = 0.016). Anxiety was correlated with the absence of hobbies (P = 0.02) and the GHQ score (P = 0.008).
It is important to detect these psychiatric disorders and to manage generators factors to ensure a better quality of life and social integration for these patients with epilepsy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
HIV infection is a chronic disease characterized by a great deal of uncertainty and unpredictability, being anxiety disorders a frequent psychiatric problem.
To provide an overview of anxiety in HIV-infected patients.
Literature review based on PubMed/Medline, using the keywords “HIV” and “anxiety disorders”.
HIV-infected individuals can experience symptoms of anxiety across the spectrum of anxiety disorders. Adjustment disorder with anxious mood is the most common diagnosis, followed by generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Some patients present with these disorders prior to notification, others develop them during the course of their illness, mainly at key moments. In HIV-infected patients, anxiety can be a manifestation of side effects of medication; a symptom of an illness associated with HIV disease; or, most commonly, the psychological response to the stressors of the illness. In fact, many issues are responsible for the anxiety experienced by people living with HIV. The authors will analyze them. Besides the distress of anxiety disorders, these lead to a decrease in adherence to antiretroviral treatments, resulting in adverse progression of HIV disease and increased risk of mortality. Importantly, however, appropriate psychiatric intervention can do it over.
Careful diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders in the context of HIV disease is even important, given the serious effects if untreated. Thus, anxiety should never be seen simply as a natural reaction to a life-threatening illness.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This review essay critically examines the evolution of scholarly literature on Brazil's Partido dos Trabalhadores since the PT's founding in 1980. We periodise the relevant literature into four phases, examining the foundation of the PT, the party's early experience in subnational government, its transformation and moderation in the late 1990s, and finally its experiences in national government since capturing the presidency in 2002. After detailing strengths and weaknesses of this research, we also examine the trajectory of the PT in light of recent comparative work on the so-called ‘left turn’ in Latin America. We conclude by offering an agenda for future research on the PT.
We describe two cases of infant botulism due to Clostridium butyricum producing botulinum type E neurotoxin (BoNT/E) and a previously unreported environmental source. The infants presented at age 11 days with poor feeding and lethargy, hypotonia, dilated pupils and absent reflexes. Faecal samples were positive for C. butyricum BoNT/E. The infants recovered after treatment including botulism immune globulin intravenous (BIG-IV). C. butyricum BoNT/E was isolated from water from tanks housing pet ‘yellow-bellied’ terrapins (Trachemys scripta scripta): in case A the terrapins were in the infant's home; in case B a relative fed the terrapin prior to holding and feeding the infant when both visited another relative. C. butyricum isolates from the infants and the respective terrapin tank waters were indistinguishable by molecular typing. Review of a case of C. butyricum BoNT/E botulism in the UK found that there was a pet terrapin where the infant was living. It is concluded that the C. butyricum-producing BoNT type E in these cases of infant botulism most likely originated from pet terrapins. These findings reinforce public health advice that reptiles, including terrapins, are not suitable pets for children aged <5 years, and highlight the importance of hand washing after handling these pets.
Lung cancer is the leading global cause of cancer-related mortality. Inter-individual variability in treatment response and prognosis has been associated with genetic polymorphisms in specific genes: EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PTEN and TTF-1. Somatic mutations in EGFR and KRAS genes are reported at rates of 15–40% in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in ethnically diverse populations. BRAF and PTEN are commonly mutated genes in various cancer types, including NSCLC, with PTEN mutations exerting an effect on the therapeutic response of EGFR/AKT/PI3K pathway inhibitors. TTF-1 is expressed in approximately 80% of lung adenocarcinomas and its positivity correlates with higher prevalence of EGFR mutation in this cancer type. To determine molecular markers for lung cancer in Brazilian patients, the rate of the predominant EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PTEN mutations, as well as TTF-1 expression, was assessed in 88 Brazilian NSCLC patients. EGFR exon 19 deletions (del746–750) were detected in 3/88 (3·4%) patients. Activating KRAS mutations in codons 12 and 61 were noted in five (5·7%) and two (2·3%) patients, respectively. None of the common somatic mutations were detected in either the BRAF or PTEN genes. TTF-1 was overexpressed in 40·7% of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). Our findings add to a growing body of data that highlights the genetic heterogeneity of the abnormal EGFR pathway in lung cancer among ethnically diverse populations.
The current research was carried out to evaluate the use of crude protein and fibre components in faeces for estimating intake and digestibility in sheep fed with pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke). The equations were developed from four trials in metabolism cages with 16 sheep in each trial. Each animal received a different quantity of millet leaves in the diet: 0·015, 0·020 and 0·025 dry matter (DM) as a proportion of live weight (LW) and ad libitum with at least 0·2 of daily feed refusals. Organic matter intake (OMI, g/day) was measured, through the difference between offer and refusals; total faeces were collected for 5 days, which was used to determine faecal crude protein (CPf, g/day and g/kg of organic matter (OM)), faecal neutral detergent fibre (NDFf, g/day and g/kg OM), faecal acid detergent fibre (ADFf, g/day and g/kg OM) and OM digestibility (OMD). Linear regression equations were calculated to determine the relationship between OMI and CPf (P<0·001, R2=0·90, relative prediction error (RPE=14·02%). A multiple linear equation was generated for OMI including CPf and NDFf (P<0·001, R2=0·94; RPE=9·25%). Hyperbolic (single and multiple) and exponential models were tested to estimate OMD, where the hyperbolic multiple model including CPf and NDFf showed lower RPE (3·90%). These equations for estimating OMI and OMD were evaluated on sheep grazing P. americanum fertilized with increasing levels of nitrogen (N) (50, 100, 200 and 400 kg N/ha), comparing measured and estimated OMI. The intake estimated by multiple regression (CP and NDFf) showed a higher R2 (0·98) and lower RPE (5·25%) than the simple (CPf only) linear equation (R2=0·94; RPE=20·45%). The results demonstrated the feasibility of using the faecal index generated in metabolism cages for estimating intake and digestibility in sheep grazing P. americanum.
The objective was evaluating the psychometric properties of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ–3) among Brazilian young adults of both genders. The sample was composed by 506 undergraduate students (295 females and 211 males), aged between 17 and 29 years old. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used for construct validity (N = 506). Correlations between the SATAQ–3 scores and those of the Tripartite Influence Scale (TIS) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were used for convergent validity. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency (α) and reproducibility (test-retest) through comparison of the means obtained at two different time points and through intra-class correlation. The scale presented a factor structure composed of five factors, replicated in the confirmatory factor analysis with satisfactory values for the measurements of adjustment to the model. Correlations with the BSQ and TIS scores were rho = .52 and rho = –.35, respectively. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were satisfactory, and their stability was demonstrated. Brazilian SATAQ–3 had good validity and reproducibility, being indicated for use in samples of Brazilian youths.
Low temperature (400°C) deposition of ferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Ga thin films is successfully performed via rf magnetron sputtering technique using co-deposition of two targets Ni50Mn50 and Ni50Ga50 on sapphire (0001) and Si (100) substrates. The films are in part amorphous with significant degree of crystallinity. The obtained crystallographic structure is shown to be substrate-dependent. Films on both substrates are ferromagnetic at room temperature (Curie temperature ∼ 332.5K) with well-defined hysteresis loops, low coercivity (∼ 100 Oe) and a saturation magnetization of ∼ 200 emu/cc. At low temperature (5 K), both films show increased magnetization value with wider hysteresis loops having higher coercivity and remanent magnetization. The process is therefore effective in achieving the appropriate thermodynamic conditions to deposit thin films of the Ni-Mn-Ga austenitic phase (highly magnetic at room temperature) at relatively low substrate temperature without the need for post-deposition annealing or further thermal treatment, which is prerequisite for the device fabrication.
ArcelorMittal Monlevade is an integrated plant with sinter plant,
blast furnace, BOF, ladle furnace, continuous caster, and rolling mill,
with a capacity of 1.2 million tpy. During the last years, Monlevade
has been raising the ladle free open index through refractory quality
improvement and standardization of operational parameters. The main
actions were changing of the geometry of ladle well block and nozzle,
use of two-layer sand, and control of sand residence time before BOF
tapping. Based on these facts, the ladle free open index has increased
from 98.5 to 99.8% from 2002 to 2006.
The reported electromagnetic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) make them a promising material for nanoelectronic applications [1,2]. Addition of CNT has recently been shown to enhance mechanical properties of phenolic-resin polymers . We are attempting to control the electrical transport behavior of phenolic-based polymers doped with CNT as a function of the different nanopowder concentration added to the polymer. In that regard, we developed a technique to obtain a material with homogenous dispersion of nanopowders, an important factor that influences the transport behavior. The chemical structure characterization was also evaluated using optical techniques.