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Structural characteristics and baking conditions influence the metabolic responses to carbohydrate-containing foods. We hypothesized that consumption of whole wheat or sourdough breads would have a favourable effect on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis after first and second meals, compared with those for white bread. Ten overweight volunteers consumed 50 g available carbohydrate of each of the four breads (white, whole wheat, sourdough, whole wheat barley) followed 3 h later by a standard second meal. Blood was sampled for 3 h following bread ingestion and a further 2 h after the second meal for determination of glucose, insulin, paracetamol (indirect marker of gastric emptying), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Glucose and GLP-1 responses to sourdough bread were lower (P < 0·05) than whole wheat and whole wheat barley breads. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) for sourdough bread was lower than those for whole wheat (P < 0·005) and whole wheat barley (P < 0·03) breads for the entire study. GIP AUC after sourdough bread ingestion was lower compared to white (P < 0·004) and whole wheat barley (P < 0·002) breads following the second meal. There were no significant differences in insulin and paracetamol concentrations among the test breads. Ultra-fine grind whole wheat breads did not result in postprandial responses that were lower than those of white bread, but sourdough bread resulted in lower glucose and GLP-1 responses compared to those of these whole wheat breads following both meals.
The normal kinetics of ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) during the meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes were examined. The phosphorylation states of RSK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), major mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in maturating porcine oocytes, were detected by Western blotting analysis. The S6 protein kinase activity was assayed using a specific substrate peptide which contained the major phosphorylation sites of S6 kinase. Full phosphorylation of RSK was correlated with ERK phosphorylation and was observed before germinal vesicle breakdown. S6 kinase activity was low in both freshly isolated and 20 h cultured oocytes. S6 kinase activity was significantly elevated in matured oocytes to a level about 6 times higher than that in freshly isolated oocytes. Furthermore, full phosphorylation of RSK was inhibited when oocytes were treated with U0126, a specific MAP kinase kinase inhibitor, in dose-dependent manner, indicating that RSK is one of the substrates of MAP kinase. These results suggest that the activation of RSK is involved in the regulation of meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes.
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