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Ion-temperature-gradient-driven (ITG) turbulence is compared for two quasi-symmetric (QS) stellarator configurations to determine the relationship between linear growth rates and nonlinear heat fluxes. We focus on the quasi-helically symmetric (QHS) stellarator HSX and the quasi-axisymmetric (QAS) stellarator NCSX. In normalized units, HSX exhibits higher growth rates than NCSX, while heat fluxes in gyro-Bohm units are lower in HSX. These results hold for simulations made with both adiabatic and kinetic electrons. The results show that HSX has a larger number of subdominant modes than NCSX and that eigenmodes are more spatially extended in HSX. We conclude that the consideration of nonlinear physics is necessary to accurately assess the heat flux due to ITG turbulence when comparing QS stellarator equilibria.
Research on precision viticulture on table grapes is relative new compared to wine grapes. The aim of this study was to assess the spatiotemporal stability of yield and quality components in a vineyard of table grapes. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard (1.4 ha) of table grapes for two successive cultivation years 2015 and 2016. Yield and quality parameters were assessed using destructive and non-destructive methods. The preliminary results revealed that spatiotemporal stability of management zones is affected by weather conditions and is different for each crop parameter, while NDVI presented good performance for delineating management zones.
We present VLA and MERLIN monitoring data of the JVAS gravitational lens system B1030+074. The system was monitored with the VLA from February 1998 to October 1998 at 8.4-GHz during which the VLA was at its A, BnA and B configuration. The 47 epochs of observations have an average spacing of approximately 5 days. Ten MERLIN snapshots were obtained in the L-band (1.7 GHz) during the months of April, May and June 1998. Preliminary light curves of the two components of the lens system obtained from the VLA data indicate that during the period of the monitoring the A flux density showed a steady decrease. No changes are observed in the B light curve.
We report the discovery of a new double image gravitational lens system B1030+074 which was found during the Jodrell Bank - VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS). We have collected extensive radio data on the system using the VLA, MERLIN, the EVN and the VLBA as well as HST WFPC2 and NICMOS observations. The lensed images are separated by 1.56 arcseconds and their flux density ratio at centimetric wavelengths is approximately 14:1 although the ratio is slightly frequency dependent and the images appear to be time variable. The HST pictures show both the lensed images and the lensing galaxy close to the weaker image. The lensing galaxy has substructure which could be either part of the galaxy or a companion object. We have modeled B1030+074 using a Singular Isothermal Ellipsoid that yielded a time delay of 156/h50 days. This lens is likely to be suitable for the measurement of the Hubble constant.
Apexes of commercial pyramidal silicon scanning microscopy tips were magnetically functionalized by means of local focused electron beam induced deposition. High aspect ratio supertips and local tip coatings with varying apex diameters can be produced by varying exposure time, beam current, and scan mode. The carbonyl precursor Co2(CO)8 was used as source of magnetic metal. Tip performance was tested with magnetic force microscopy (tapping / lift-retrace mode) and magnetically actuated cantilever atomic force microscopy. The deposit contains 34±2 at.% Co, dispersed as 2-5 nm metal nanocrystals in a carbonaceous matrix. Specific surface reactions and Boudouard reactions are proposed to explain the resulting deposit composition measured by Auger spectroscopy. The electrical resistivity is 104 higher than bulk Co resistivity.
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