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Increasing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) awareness and decreasing stigmatic beliefs among the general public are core goals of National Dementia Strategy programs. College students are one of the most important targeted populations for achieving this goal. The aim of the current study was to examine AD public stigma among Israeli and Greek college students.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among college students in Israel and Greece using vignette methodology.
Seven hundred and fifty three college students – 213 Israeli and 540 Greek – participated in the study.
Three dimensions of stigma were assessed (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) together with health beliefs regarding AD and socio-demographic characteristics.
Low levels of stigma were found in both samples, with Israeli students reporting statistically significant higher levels of stigmatic beliefs than Greek students in all the dimensions, except with willingness to help. Similar to stigma in the area of mental illness, the findings in both countries supported an attributional model for AD public stigma, i.e. positive correlations were found among cognitive attributions, negative emotions, and discriminatory behaviors in both countries. Differences between the countries emerged as a significant determinant of cognitive, as well as of negative emotions and willingness to help.
Our findings might help researchers and clinicians to apply the knowledge gained in the area of mental illness to the development of effective ways of reducing AD public stigma. Moreover, they allowed us to frame the understanding of AD public stigma within a socio-cultural context.
This paper presents a comparison of chip connections using aerosol jet (AJ) and bond technology on low-cost printed circuit board (PCB) substrates. First, the behavior of the used gap filler material and the used silver ink for AJ technology on PCBs are characterized. In addition to comparing the radio frequency (RF) performance (DC to 67 GHz) of the two technologies, the mechanical stability is also compared. While the AJ technology transitions score above all for their RF performance and the lower requirements (surface finish, pad size, and adhesion) on the PCB, the bonding technology has clear advantages, especially with a different coefficient of thermal expansion values of the substrates to be connected. Finally, the measurement results of a complete package are shown, whereby the chip connection is realized once by means of AJ and once by bonding wires.
The commercially available collar device MooMonitor+ was evaluated with regards to accuracy and application potential for measuring grazing behavior. These automated measurements are crucial as cows feed intake behavior at pasture is an important parameter of animal performance, health and welfare as well as being an indicator of feed availability. Compared to laborious and time-consuming visual observation, the continuous and automated measurement of grazing behavior may support and improve the grazing management of dairy cows on pasture. Therefore, there were two experiments as well as a literature analysis conducted to evaluate the MooMonitor+ under grazing conditions. The first experiment compared the automated measurement of the sensor against visual observation. In a second experiment, the MooMonitor+ was compared to a noseband sensor (RumiWatch), which also allows continuous measurement of grazing behavior. The first experiment on n = 12 cows revealed that the automated sensor MooMonitor+ and visual observation were highly correlated as indicated by the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rs) = 0.94 and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) = 0.97 for grazing time. An rs-value of 0.97 and CCC = 0.98 was observed for rumination time. In a second experiment with n = 12 cows over 24-h periods, a high correlation between the MooMonitor+ and the RumiWatch was observed for grazing time as indicated by an rs-value of 0.91 and a CCC-value of 0.97. Similarly, a high correlation was observed for rumination time with an rs-value of 0.96 and a CCC-value of 0.99. While a higher level of agreement between the MooMonitor+ and both visual observation and RumiWatch was observed for rumination time compared to grazing time, the overall results showed a high level of accuracy of the collar device in measuring grazing and rumination times. Therefore, the collar device can be applied to monitor cow behavior at pasture on farms. With regards to the application potential of the collar device, it may not only be used on commercial farms but can also be applied to research questions when a data resolution of 15 min is sufficient. Thus, at farm level, the farmer can get an accurate and continuous measurement of grazing behavior of each individual cow and may then use those data for decision-making to optimize the animal management.
N95 respirator masks are recommended for protection against respiratory viruses. Despite passing fit-testing 10% of N95 respirator users encountered breakthroughs with exposure to influenza virus compared to full protection provided by a powered air purifying respirator. The current recommendation of N95 respirators should be evaluated for endemic and emerging scenarios.
Precision technologies and data have had relatively modest impacts in grass-based livestock ruminant production systems compared with other agricultural sectors such as arable. Precision technologies promise increased efficiency, reduced environmental impact, improved animal health, welfare and product quality. The benefits of precision technologies have, however, been relatively slow to be realised on pasture based farms. Though there is significant overlap with indoor systems, implementing technology in grass-based dairying brings unique opportunities and challenges. The large areas animals roam and graze in pasture based systems and the associated connectivity challenges may, in part at least, explain the comparatively lower adoption of such technologies in pasture based systems. With the exception of sensor and Bluetooth-enabled plate metres, there are thus few technologies designed specifically to increase pasture utilisation. Terrestrial and satellite-based spectral analysis of pasture biomass and quality is still in the development phase. One of the key drivers of efficiency in pasture based systems has thus only been marginally impacted by precision technologies. In contrast, technological development in the area of fertility and heat detection has been significant and offers significant potential value to dairy farmers, including those in pasture based systems. A past review of sensors in health management for dairy farms concluded that although the collection of accurate data was generally achieved, the processing, integration and presentation of the resulting information and decision-support applications were inadequate. These technologies’ value to farming systems is thus unclear. As a result, it is not certain that farm management is being sufficiently improved to justify widespread adoption of precision technologies currently. We argue for a user need-driven development of technologies and for a focus on how outputs arising from precision technologies and associated decision support applications are delivered to users to maximise their value. Further cost/benefit analysis is required to determine the efficacy of investing in specific precision technologies, potentially taking account of several yet to ascertained farm specific variables.
This Research Communication describes an investigation of the nutritional depletion of total mixed rations (TMR) by pest birds. We hypothesized that species-specific bird depredation of TMR can alter the nutritional composition of the ration and that these changes can negatively impact the performance of dairy cows. Blackbirds selected the high energy fraction of the TMR (i.e., flaked corn) and reduced starch, crude fat and total digestible nutrients during controlled feeding experiments. For Holsteins producing 37·1 kg of milk/d, dairy production modeling illustrated that total required net energy intake (NEI) was 35·8 Mcal/d. For the reference TMR unexposed to blackbirds and the blackbird-consumed TMR, NEI supplied was 41·2 and 37·8 Mcal/d, and the resulting energy balance was 5·4 and 2·0 Mcal/d, respectively. Thus, Holsteins fed the reference and blackbird-consumed TMR were estimated to gain one body condition score in 96 and 254 d, and experience daily weight change due to reserves of 1·1 and 0·4 kg/d, respectively. We discuss these results in context of an integrated pest management program for mitigating the depredation caused by pest birds at commercial dairies.
Much actuarial work is underpinned by the use of economic models derived from mainstream academic theories of finance and economics which treat money as being a neutral medium of exchange. The sustainability of a financial system whose understanding is based on a limited view of the role of money has increasingly been subject to criticism. In order to identify needed research programmes to address such criticisms and improve these disciplines, we sought to understand the current state of knowledge in economics and finance concerning the link between monetary and financial factors and sustainability. We have approached this through a search for relevant literature published in the highest-rated academic journals in economics, finance and the social sciences for titles and abstracts containing both references to the financial system on the one hand, and sustainability and environmental factors on the other. The systematic search of a universe of 125 journals and 355,000 articles yielded the finding that surprisingly few research papers jointly address these concepts. Nevertheless, we find that current research shares a broad consensus that the implications of the growth-oriented economic model results in an increasingly interconnected and fragile financial system whose participants are not incentivised to fully recognise the natural environment and resource constraints. We further observe that the prescriptions offered are relatively limited and small-scale in their outlook and that there is a vital need for further research, particularly for actuaries who are required to take a longer-term outlook. The Resource and Environment Board has supported this work with two key objectives: first, to identify research that may have direct application to actuarial work and, second, to identify gaps in academic research that would help drive the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries’ own research agenda. With this in mind there are three further areas of potential actuarial research. These are the policy aim of pursuing growth without limit within a finite ecosystem; discount factors as the primary means of capital allocation and investment decisions; and the use of gross domestic product as the key metric of economic activity and success. We also conclude that further academic research is urgently needed to understand the sustainability of the banking and monetary system.
Maternal perinatal depression exerts pervasive effects on the developing brain, as evidenced by electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns that differ between children of women who do and do not meet DSM or ICD diagnostic criteria. However, little research has examined if the same EEG pattern of right-frontal alpha asymmetry exists in newborns and thus originates in utero independent of postnatal influences, and if depressive symptoms are associated with this neural signature. Utilizing 125-lead EEG (n=18), this study considered clinician-rated maternal prenatal depressive symptoms in relation to newborn EEG. Maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with greater relative right-frontal alpha asymmetry during quiet sleep. These results suggest that even subclinical levels of maternal depression may influence infant brain development, and further support the role of the prenatal environment in shaping children’s future neurobehavioral trajectories.
Exposure to child maltreatment has been shown to increase lifetime risk for substance use disorders (SUD). However, this has not been systematically examined among race/ethnic groups, for whom rates of exposure to assaultive violence and SUD differ. This study examined variation by race/ethnicity and gender in associations of alcohol (AUD), cannabis (CUD), and tobacco (TUD) use disorders with three types of childhood interpersonal violence (cIPV): physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing parental violence.
Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol-Related Conditions-III (N: 36 309), a US nationally representative sample, was utilized to examine associations of DSM-5 AUD, CUD and TUD with cIPV among men and women of five racial/ethnic groups. Models were adjusted for additional risk factors (e.g. parental substance use problems, participant's co-occurring SUD).
Independent contributions of childhood physical and sexual abuse to AUD, CUD, and TUD, and of witnessing parental violence to AUD and TUD were observed. Associations of cIPV and SUD were relatively similar across race/ethnicity and gender [Odds Ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.1 to 1.9], although associations of physical abuse with AUD and TUD were greater among males, associations of parental violence and AUD were greater among females, and associations of parental violence with AUD were greater among Hispanic women and American Indian men.
Given the paucity of research in this area, and the potential identification of modifiable risk factors to reduce the impact of childhood interpersonal violence on SUDs, further research and consideration of tailoring prevention and intervention efforts to different populations are warranted.
Parasites can influence host population dynamics, community composition and evolution. Prediction of these effects, however, requires an understanding of the influence of ecological context on parasite distributions and the consequences of infection for host fitness. We address these issues with an amphibian – trematode (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) host–parasite system. We initially performed a field survey of trematode infection in first (snail) and second (larval green frog, Rana clamitans) intermediate hosts over 5 years across a landscape of 23 ponds in southeastern Michigan. We then combined this study with a tadpole enclosure experiment in eight ponds. We found echinostomes in all ponds during the survey, although infection levels in both snails and amphibians differed across ponds and years. Echinostome prevalence (proportion of hosts infected) in snails also changed seasonally depending on host species, and abundance (parasites per host) in tadpoles depended on host size and prevalence in snails. The enclosure experiment demonstrated that infection varied at sites within ponds, and tadpole survival was lower in enclosures with higher echinostome abundance. The observed effects enhance our ability to predict when and where host–parasite interactions will occur and the potential fitness consequences of infection, with implications for population and community dynamics, evolution and conservation.
Based on seven measured sections from Svalbard, the marine strata of the Permian Kapp Starostin Formation are arranged into seven transgressive–regressive sequences (TR1–TR7) of c. 4–5 Ma average duration, each bound by a maximum regressive surface. Facies, including heterozoan-dominated limestones, spiculitic cherts, sandstones, siltstones and shales, record deposition within inner, middle and outer shelf areas. The lowermost sequence, TR1, comprises most of the basal Vøringen Member, which records a transgression across the Gipshuken Formation following a hiatus of unknown duration. Temperate to cold, storm-dominated facies established in inner to middle shelf areas between the latest Artinskian and Kungurian. Prolonged deepening during sequences TR2 and TR3 was succeeded by a long-term shallowing-upward trend that lasted until the latest Permian (TR4–TR7). A major depocentre existed in central and western Spitsbergen while to the north, Dickson Land remained a shallow platform, leading to a shallow homoclinal ramp in NE Spitsbergen and Nordaustlandet. The Middle Permian extinction (late Capitanian) is recorded near the base of TR6 in deeper parts of the basin only; elsewhere this sequence is not recorded. Likewise the youngest sequence, TR7, extending to the upper formational contact of latest Permian age, is found only in the basin depocentre. Comparison with age-equivalent strata in the Sverdrup Basin of Canada reveals a remarkably similar depositional history, with, for example, two (third-order) sea-level cycles recorded in the Late Permian of both regions, in keeping with the global record. Sequence stratigraphy may therefore be a powerful correlative tool for onshore and offshore Permian deposits across NW Pangaea.
When comparing dendrodates and radiocarbon dates, I advocate using the mean value for archaeologically defined data series, as in the usual case, the correct dating is always more precise than the calibrated areas. However, in the extreme gradient of the calibration curve, we must consider the errors. Based on the Corded Ware from the Tauber basin, I put forward a first example in which a contradiction between the archaeological and 14C dating occurs. If one cleanly separates the older measurements from Köln and the younger ones from Heidelberg, the contradiction towards the archaeological dating is canceled out when only the younger Heidelberg dates are taken into account. Regarding the Early Bronze Age, I shall first deal with the cemetery at Singen and will show, using the typology and the horizontal distribution of the graves, how outliers can be identified, thus narrowing the range for dating of the cemetery. The comparison of 2 archaeologically contemporaneous cemeteries in the Neckar basin (Rottenburg and Gäufelden) again results in contradictions between the archaeological and 14C dating. In this case, the contradictions cannot be solved without any new dating measurements. It is recommended that these should be carried out by at least 2 laboratories. Finally, some recommendations are given to archaeologists. In my opinion, 14C dates that are archaeologically unsuitable should be used to check the findings and the archaeological-typological classification. The contradictions should be reported immediately to the 14C laboratory, so that any possible experimental errors can be identified.
Peat deposits in Greenland and Denmark were investigated to show that high-resolution dating of these archives of atmospheric deposition can be provided for the last 50 years by radiocarbon dating using the atmospheric bomb pulse. 14C was determined in macrofossils from sequential one cm slices using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Values were calibrated with a general-purpose curve derived from annually averaged atmospheric 14CO2 values in the northernmost northern hemisphere (NNH, 30°–90°N). We present a thorough review of 14C bomb-pulse data from the NNH including our own measurements made in tree rings and seeds from Arizona as well as other previously published data. We show that our general-purpose calibration curve is valid for the whole NNH producing accurate dates within 1–2 years. In consequence, 14C AMS can precisely date individual points in recent peat deposits within the range of the bomb-pulse (from the mid-1950s on). Comparing the 14C AMS results with the customary dating method for recent peat profiles by 210Pb, we show that the use of 137Cs to validate and correct 210Pb dates proves to be more problematic than previously supposed.
As a unique example of our technique, we show how this chronometer can be applied to identify temporal changes in Hg concentrations from Danish and Greenland peat cores.
Fast computers enable the solution of quantum many-body problems by Monte Carlo methods. As computing power increased dramatically over the years, similarly impressive advances occurred at the level of the algorithms, so that we are now in a position to perform accurate simulations of large systems of interacting quantum spins, Bosons, and (to a lesser extent) Fermions. The purpose of this book is to present and explain the quantum Monte Carlo algorithms being used today to simulate the ground states and thermodynamic equilibrium states of quantum models defined on a lattice. Our intent is not to review all relevant algorithms – there are too many variants to do so comprehensively – but rather to focus on a core set of important algorithms, explaining what they are and how and why they work.
Our focus on lattice models, such as Heisenberg and Hubbard models, has at least two implications. The first is obviously that we are not considering models in the continuum where extensive use of quantum Monte Carlo methods traditionally has focused on producing highly accurate ab initio calculations of the ground states of nuclei, atoms, molecules, and solids. Quantum Monte Carlo algorithms for simulating the ground states of continuum and lattice models, however, are very similar. In fact, the lattice algorithms are in many cases derived from the continuum methods. With fewer degrees of freedom, lattice models are compact and insightful representations of the physics in the continuum.
The second implication is a focus on both zero and finite temperature algorithms. On a lattice, it is natural to study phase transitions. In particular, the recent dramatic advances in quantum Monte Carlo lattice methods for the simulation of quantum spin models were prompted by a need for more efficient and effective ways to study finite-temperature transitions. While quantum Monte Carlo is profitably used to study zero temperature phase transitions (quantum critical phenomena), some ground state algorithms have no finite temperature analogs and vice versa. In many respects, the lattice is where the current algorithmic action is.
The book is divided into four parts. The first part is a self-contained, more advanced than average, discussion of the Monte Carlo method, its use, and its foundations.
Astrophotography is only a small fraction of the broad spectrum of amateur astronomers’ work. With the development of high-sensitivity emulsions, amateur telescopes of large focal ratios and good quality, cheap multi-purpose cameras (both 35- and 70-mm), and intensive public relations work done by observatories as well as by individual, advanced amateurs, the methods and techniques of astrophotography have become accessible to all amateurs. With suitable equipment, experience, and familiarity with astronomical problems (e.g. by close contact with professional astronomers), they are even able to make valuable contributions to science.
This paper reports on a theoretical analysis of the rich variety of spatio-temporal patterns observed recently in inclined layer convection at medium Prandtl number when varying the inclination angle
and the Rayleigh number
. The present numerical investigation of the inclined layer convection system is based on the standard Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations. The patterns are shown to originate from a complicated competition of buoyancy driven and shear-flow driven pattern forming mechanisms. The former are expressed as longitudinal convection rolls with their axes oriented parallel to the incline, the latter as perpendicular transverse rolls. Along with conventional methods to study roll patterns and their stability, we employ direct numerical simulations in large spatial domains, comparable with the experimental ones. As a result, we determine the phase diagram of the characteristic complex 3-D convection patterns above onset of convection in the
plane, and find that it compares very well with the experiments. In particular we demonstrate that interactions of specific Fourier modes, characterized by a resonant interaction of their wavevectors in the layer plane, are key to understanding the pattern morphologies.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has consistently been linked with adverse outcomes including substance use disorders and adult sexual revictimization. Adult sexual victimization itself has been linked with psychopathology but has predominately been studied in women. The current investigation examines the impact of CM and co-occurring psychopathology on adult sexual victimization in men and women, replicating findings in three distinct samples.
We investigated the association between continuous CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization in the Childhood Trauma Study (CTS) sample (N = 2564). We also examined the unique relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual victimization while adjusting for co-occurring substance dependence and psychopathology. We replicated these analyses in two additional samples: the Comorbidity and Trauma Study (CATS; N = 1981) and the Australian Twin-Family Study of Alcohol Use Disorders (OZ-ALC; N = 1537).
Analyses revealed a significant association with CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization for both men and women across all three samples. The CSA factor score was strongly associated with adult sexual victimization after adjusting for substance dependence and psychopathology; higher odds ratios were observed in men (than women) consistently across the three samples.
A continuous measure of CSA is independently associated with adult sexual trauma risk across samples in models that included commonly associated substance dependence and psychopathology as covariates. The strength of the association between this CSA measure and adult sexual victimization is higher in magnitude for men than women, pointing to the need for further investigation of sexual victimization in male community samples.