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We assessed the prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation and associated psychosocial factors among Viennese secondary school pupils.
An anonymous self-report survey which assessed the major psychiatric risk factors of teen suicide, as well as demographic characteristics, was completed by pupils of three Viennese secondary schools (n=214).
Eighty-one (37.9%) secondary school pupil reported ever having suicidal thoughts, girls significantly more often than boys (48.5% vs. 29.1%, p=.004). Furthermore, lifetime suicidal ideation among Viennese secondary school pupils was associated with living in “broken-home” families, cigarette smoking, substance problem (alcohol/drugs), self-reported depression, and school type. After adjusting for confounders, we found that female gender, substance problem, school type and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with lifetime suicidal ideation among secondary school pupils in Vienna.
In context of suicide prevention, attention should be paid to the psychosocial factors associated with pupils' suicidal ideation.
Plutonium metal is a very unusual element, exhibiting six allotropes at ambient pressure, between room temperature and its melting point, a complicated phase diagram, and a complex electronic structure. Many phases of plutonium metal are unstable with changes in temperature, pressure, chemical additions, or time. This strongly affects structure and properties, and becomes of high importance, particularly when considering effects on structural integrity over long periods of time . This paper presents a time-dependent neutron total scattering study of the local and average structure of naturally aging δ-phase 239Pu-Ga alloys, together with preliminary results on neutron tomography characterization.
Indonesia has reported the most human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus worldwide. We implemented enhanced surveillance in four outpatient clinics and six hospitals for HPAI H5N1 and seasonal influenza viruses in East Jakarta district to assess the public health impact of influenza in Indonesia. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI); respiratory specimens were obtained for influenza testing by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. During October 2011–September 2012, 1131/3278 specimens from ILI cases (34·5%) and 276/1787 specimens from SARI cases (15·4%) tested positive for seasonal influenza viruses. The prevalence of influenza virus infections was highest during December–May and the proportion testing positive was 76% for ILI and 36% for SARI during their respective weeks of peak activity. No HPAI H5N1 virus infections were identified, including hundreds of ILI and SARI patients with recent poultry exposures, whereas seasonal influenza was an important contributor to acute respiratory disease in East Jakarta. Overall, 668 (47%) of influenza viruses were influenza B, 384 (27%) were A(H1N1)pdm09, and 359 (25%) were H3. While additional data over multiple years are needed, our findings suggest that seasonal influenza prevention efforts, including influenza vaccination, should target the months preceding the rainy season.
A complex cerium bearing oxide, Gd2Ce2O7 was synthesized in order to simulate Pu in a fluorite derivative oxide. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data was collected using a lab diffractometer at room temperature and analyzed by Rietveld refinement method using the xnd program. The diffraction pattern obtained from the material could be indexed as a C-type cubic bixbyite crystal structure however several peaks showed peak broadening and could not be accounted for within the single-phase bixbyite model. A full pattern refinement, assuming a possible existence of short order disordered bixbyite regions within an average disordered fluorite phase gave a good fit with the experimental data, providing an estimate for correlation length of those bixbyite regions. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the existence of these correlated domains of disordered bixbyite type phase inside a defect fluorite lattice. Understanding the extent of these domains as a function of composition and the thermal history of the samples may have a profound effect on our understanding of miscibility gaps in Re2O3-CeO2 phase diagrams. These effects could be eventually exploited to design materials with increased radiation resistance, a desired feature for oxide matrices where actinides can be safely disposed.
Mining is known to be a major source of metal contamination for fluvial systems worldwide. Monitoring and understanding the effects on downstream water and sediment quality is essential for its management and to mitigate against detrimental environmental impacts. This study aimed to examine the effects of the small-scale, abandoned, hydraulic Black Creek gold mine on the geochemical content of fine (<63 μm) stream bed and floodplain sediment in the Horsefly watershed (British Columbia, Canada), which is a part of the Quesnel River basin. Concentrations of As, Cd, Se and Zn were determined by aqua regia digestion and the modified BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure followed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy or inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Age-depth models for the floodplain cores were constructed using excess Pb-210 and Cs-137 activity concentration profiles. The results show that the mine caused local As contamination of the Horsefly River floodplain sediment during the first years of operation, but at present the contamination is mainly contained in the Black Creek. Present-day and recent concentrations of Cd, Se and Zn in the Horsefly River are elevated and this is probably derived from other upstream mining activities. The spatial and temporal changes in heavymetal concentrations suggest a slight, but not particularly widespread, mining effect on the finesediment geochemistry in the Horsefly River system.
In Chile, while dog rabies has decreased markedly over the last 30 years, bat rabies is still reported frequently. In order to shed new light on the spatiotemporal trends of these reports, we analysed active and passive data from years 1985 and 2012, which included 61 076 samples from 289 counties of Chile. We found that from 1994 to 2012, more than 15 000 bat samples were submitted for diagnostics through passive surveillance, 9·5% of which tested positive for rabies. By contrast, the prevalence of infection was only ~0·4% among the nearly 12 000 bat samples submitted through active surveillance. We found that the prevalence of dog rabies dropped steadily over the same period, with just a single confirmed case since 1998. None of the 928 samples from wild animals, other than bats, were positive for rabies. Although there has been only one confirmed case of human rabies in Chile since 1985, and a single confirmed case in a dog since 1998, bats remain a reservoir for rabies viruses. While active surveillance indicates that rabies prevalence is low in bat colonies, the high proportion of positive bats submitted through passive surveillance is a concern. To prevent human rabies, local public health agencies should increase research on the basic ecology of bats and the role of stray dogs and cats as potential rabies amplifiers.
This study examined recent trends in type-specific HPV infection rates in women referred for HPV typing as part of cervical cancer screening in the United States. HPV analyses were performed from March 2004 to March 2011. Women were aged 21–65 years at testing. The 18 most prevalent HPV types were analysed. Type-specific HPV infection rates were estimated in 3-month blocks. Lowess smoothing was used to examine time trends in infection rates for each HPV type, both combined, and separated by age group (younger women 21–30 years, older women 31–64 years). A total of 220914 women were included in the final analysis. The number of HPV tests performed on the younger age group increased, with the number of HPV infections and multiple type HPV infections decreasing. When separated by HPV type-specific analysis, the majority of HPV infection rates decreased; however, HPV types 61 and 83 increased. When analysing the older age group, there was a marked increase of the number of HPV tests. Overall, the rates of any HPV infection, as well as multiple type infections, were lower compared to the younger age group. The change in type-specific HPV rates in the older age group was minimal, with many rates remaining the same. In this population of women, overall rates of HPV infection decreased, while the number of HPV tests increased. Younger women had a more marked decrease in HPV infection rates, while for older women type-specific HPV infection rates appear consistent.
We report the first successful application of corona charging noncontact C-V and I-V metrology to interface and dielectric characterization of high-k/III-V structures. The metrology, which has been commonly used in Si IC manufacturing, uses incremental corona charge dosing, ΔQC, on the dielectric surface, and the measurement of surface voltage response, ΔVS, using a Kelvin-probe. Its application to In0.53Ga0.47As with a high-k stack required modifications related to the effects of dielectric trap induced voltage transients. The developed Corona Charge-Kelvin Probe Metrology adopted strictly differential measurements using ΔQC and ΔV, and corresponding differential capacitance rather than measurements based on total global charge, Q, and voltage, V, values.
Electrical characterization data including interface trap density, electrical oxide thickness, and dielectric leakage are presented for a sample containing an In0.53 Ga0.47 As channel overlaid with a bilayer (2nm Al2O3/5nm HfO2) dielectric stack that is considered to be very promising for application in performance NFETs with high-mobility channels.
Ho2O3-TiO2 based metal-insulator-metal capacitors were grown by ALD, using Ho(thd)3, Ti(OCH(CH3)2)4 and ozone as precursors. The thicknesses of the films were in the range of 7.7 to 25 nm. Some of the films were post-deposited annealed in order to study the treatment effects. The capacitors were electrically characterized. Leakage current decreases as the amount of holmium increased in the films. Resistive switching behavior was obtained in the samples where the leakage current was low. This effect was also observed in Ho2O3 films, where no titanium was present in the films.
Using Δ14C observations to infer the local concentration excess of CO2 due to the burning of fossil fuels (ΔFFCO2) is a promising technique to monitor anthropogenic CO2 emissions. A recent study showed that 14CO2 emissions from the nuclear industry can significantly alter the local atmospheric 14CO2 concentration and thus mask the Δ14C depletion due to ΔFFCO2. In this study, we investigate the relevance of this effect for the vicinity of Toronto, Canada, a hot spot of anthropogenic 14CO2 emissions. Comparing the measured emissions from local power plants to a global emission inventory highlighted significant deviations on interannual timescales. Although the previously assumed emission factor of 1.6 TBq(GWa)-1 agrees with the observed long-term average for all CANDU reactors of 1.50 ± 0.18 TBq(GWa)-1. This power-based parameterization neglects the different emission ratios for individual reactors, which range from 3.4 ± 0.82 to 0.65 ± 0.09 TBq(GWa)-1. This causes a mean difference of-14% in 14CO2 concentrations in our simulations at our observational site in Egbert, Canada. On an annual time basis, this additional 14CO2 masks the equivalent of 27–82% of the total annual FFCO2 offset. A pseudo-data experiment suggests that the interannual variability in the masked fraction may cause spurious trends in the ΔFFCO2 estimates of the order of 30% from 2006–2010. In addition, a comparison of the modeled Δ14C levels with our observational time series from 2008–2010 underlines that incorporating the best available 14CO2 emissions significantly increases the agreement. There were also short periods with significant observed Δ14C offsets, which were found to be linked with maintenance periods conducted on these nuclear reactors.
NASA's NuSTAR observatory is the first focusing hard X-ray telescope. Launched in June 2012, NuSTAR is sensitive in the 3–79 keV range with unprecedented ~17″ FWHM angular resolution above 12 keV, a result of its multilayer-coated optics and 10-m focal length. With its large effective area (900 cm2 at 10 keV), NuSTAR has point-source sensitivity ~100 times better than previous hard X-ray telescopes. Here we describe NuSTAR and its planned work on rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars during its nominal 2-yr baseline mission that has just commenced.
Centre-of-mass motions of two coupled spherical-cap droplets are considered. A model with surface tension and inertia that accounts for finite-amplitude deformations is derived in closed form. Total droplet volume λ and half-length L of the tube that connects the droplets are the control parameters. The model dynamics reside in the phase-plane. For lens-like droplets λ < 1, and for any L there is a single steady state about which the droplets vibrate with limit-cycle behaviour. For λ>1, the symmetric state loses stability (saddle point) and new antisymmetric steady states arise about which limit-cycle oscillations occur. These mirror states – big-droplet up or big-droplet down – are also stable. In addition, there are large finite-amplitude ‘looping’ oscillations corresponding to limit cycles that enclose both steady states in the phase-plane. All three kinds of oscillations are documented in an experiment that sets the system into motion by ‘kicking’ one of the droplets with a prescribed pressure-pulse. Model predictions for frequencies are consistent with observations. Small-amplitude predictions are placed in the wider context of constrained Rayleigh vibrations. A model extension to account for the small but non-negligible influence of viscosity is also presented.
A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers, providing 600 g fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes. No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but does not affect sex hormones. In conclusion, it has been shown that total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, markers of peripheral lipid oxidation, and erythrocyte GPX1 activity are affected by high intakes of fruit and vegetables. This finding provides support for a protective role of dietary fruit and vegetables against CVD.
The crystalline quality of bonded Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers were examined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy. Both techniques detect slight structural defects in the SOI layer. If a pure crystalline silicon dielectric function is assumed for the SOI layer, the spectroscopic ellipsometry data fitting yields an unacceptably large discrepancy between the experimental and modeled data. The best fits for all the samples result in a dielectric function of the SOI layer that consists of a physical mixture of crystalline silicon and about 4 % to 7 % of amorphous silicon. Using such a mixture indicates that there are still some defects in the SOI layer when compared with the high-quality bulk crystalline silicon. This observation is further supported by Raman spectroscopy measurements. The Raman spectra of all SOI samples exhibit a feature at about 495 cm−1 that is not observed in the crystalline silicon spectrum. Features similar to the 495 cm−1 feature have been reported in the literature and attributed to dislocations or faults in the silicon lattice.
Objective: To discuss the need for continuing cardiac surveillance in adults with hemodynamically insignificant congenital cardiac disease. Methods: In 82 patients with mild congenital cardiac malformations, aged from 17 to 32 years, we investigated the subjective health status, the health-related quality of life, any difficulties encountered in daily life, the regularity of follow-up, current diagnosis, and antibiotic prophylaxis. Results: The subjective health status, and the health-related quality of life, did not differ from those of the general population. Nevertheless, patients experienced unnecessary difficulties with choice of sport, obtaining insurance cover, and education. After clinical re-evaluation, diagnosis and antibiotic regimes had to be changed in 9 patients (11%). Conclusions: Patients with a mild congenital cardiac malformation consider themselves to be in good health. So as to fine tune the diagnosis, and update the information supplied to the patients, we suggest that at least a cardiological assessment be carried out at the age of 16 to 18 years. In this way, patients might be protected from unnecessary difficulties, such as restrictions for sport or the charging of unjustifiably high rates for insurance.
Using autoradiographic and biochemical techniques, we studied
the sodium-dependent forward and reverse transport of the
neurotransmitter histamine in an arthropod photoreceptor in
order to test whether the transporter plays a central role in
visual signal transfer at this synapse. In particular, we asked
whether the histamine transporter might be the important factor
in synaptic adaptation, the process by which the operating range
of the synapse adapts to increasing depolarizations of the
photoreceptor in increasing background light. Drugs known from
electrophysiological observations to interfere with synaptic
adaptation blocked the uptake of [3H]histamine into
photoreceptors. These drugs also blocked the sodium (Na)-triggered
efflux of [3H]histamine, previously loaded into
photoreceptors, via the histamine transporter. Several
lines of evidence showed that efflux of [3H]histamine
did not occur via calcium-dependent exocytosis. First,
efflux occurred when the preparation was bathed in calcium
(Ca)-free/EGTA salines or in cobalt (Co)-containing salines.
Even more importantly, efflux could be elicited from axons,
whose membranes must contain the transporter protein since they
take up [3H]histamine independently from the presynaptic
terminals. Since both adaptation and the histamine transporter
are blocked by the same agents, the transporter may underlie
adaptation by maintaining the cleft histamine concentration
in a particular range independent of light intensity. We also
characterized the transporter further and found that it is
partially dependent on chloride ions, and that neither
[3H]norepinephrine nor [3H]dopamine are
transported (at 20 μM), adding to evidence that the transporter
is highly selective for histamine.
To assess results of closure of atrial septal defects within the oval fossa by devices delivered by catheterisation in symptomatic infants and children under 2 years of age.
Methods and results
The Amplatzer septal occluder was used. Results, and complications of transcatheter device treatment in patients aged below 2 years were compared to previous results from our institution.
We attempted closure in 12 consecutive patients below the age of 2 years who presented with an atrial septal defect between May 1997 and 1999. Symptoms were failure to thrive in 6, frequent chest infections in 5, and the need for treatment of heart failure in the other. All were thought to have a defect suitable for interventional closure. The atrial defects were seen in isolation in 10 children, but 2 had associated pulmonary stenosis which had been treated by balloon dilation prior to placement of the Amplatzer occluder.
The Amplatzer septal occluder was implanted at a mean age of 1.4 ± 0.4, with a range from 0.8 to 1.8 years. Ratios of pulmonaryto-systemic flow had been 2.1 ± 0.5, with a range from 1.6 and 3.2, and the defect was measured at 12 ± 4 mms. Fluoroscopy time was 12.8 ± 10.2 minutes, with a range from 5 to 43 minutes, and the time of the overall procedure was 162 ± 70 minutes, with a range from 85 to 360 minutes. It proved necessary to remove the device in 2 patients (16%) because of a residual shunt and movement after release. One of these developed transient neurological complications. Both subsequently underwent surgical treatment.
Symptomatic patients less than 2 years of age can undergo successful closure of an atrial septal defect using the Amplatzer device, but the rates of success are less, and procedure time longer, than in older children or adults.
Chronic cyanosis with its associated rheologic changes is a known risk factor for glomerular nephropathy. Therefore, contrast-induced nephrotoxicity should be an important consideration for angiographers comparable to diabetics. On the other hand, progressions in diagnostic and interventional techniques have led to expanded indications and a more widespread use of x-ray contrast agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy in the small group of patients with cyanotic heart disease prior to surgical repair.
We investigated 23 cyanotic patients with an oxygen saturation of 82 (50–92)%, age 25 (5–63) years, and 13 control subjects with atrial septal defect, age 37 (20–66) years. Blood viscosity was measured before and after cardiac catherization. Renal damage was evaluatated by selective analysis of urinary proteins and enzymes.
Before cardiac catheterization, 48% of the cyanotic patients had a moderate glomerulopathy. Cardiac catherization was performed with 3.0 (1.2 – 6.8) mls/kg non ionic contrast medium. Only one of the 23 patients (4.3%) with normal urinary analysis before cardiac catheterization showed renal damage, which involved tubular and glomerular function. Elevated blood viscosity in cyanotic patients was slightly reduced by the contrast. None of the acyanotic controls had contrast-induced nephropathy.
The use of non-ionic contrast medium does not worsen cyanotic glomerulopathy. This finding may be due to the reduction of blood viscosity by the application of the contrast medium. The finding of contrast-induced nephropathy in one patient underlines the importance of monitoring renal function after cardiac catheterization.
We compared the acute effects on right ventricular haemodynamics of surgical versus transcatheter closure of medium-sized atrial septal defects.
We studied 47 consecutive patients with a defect in the oval fossa and a ratio of pulmonary to systemic flows between 1.5: 1 and 2: 1. They were divided into two groups according to whether the defects were closed by surgery, performed in 23 patients, or by interventional catheterization, achieved in 24 patients. By means of transthoracic cross-sectional echocardiography, we measured right ventricular end-diastolic and endsystolic volumes and calculated ejection fractions. These calculations were performed before, and between 1 and 7 days after closure of the defect.
Before closure of the defect, all patients had an enlarged right ventricle with normal function. After closure by either method, there was no difference in the rate of normalization of end-diastolic volume, but endsystolic volume remained enlarged. Thus, the calculated ejection fraction was lower than before closure.
There was no difference in right ventricular volumes or function early after closure of atrial septal defects, irrespective of whether this was achieved surgically or via transcatheter closure.