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Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) may be an early indicator of risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Findings regarding sex differences in SCD are inconsistent. Studying sex differences in SCD within cognitively unimpaired individuals with autosomal-dominant AD (ADAD), who will develop dementia, may inform sex-related SCD variations in preclinical AD. We examined sex differences in SCD within cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers from the world’s largest ADAD kindred and sex differences in the relationship between SCD and memory performance.
We included 310 cognitively unimpaired Presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) E280A mutation carriers (51% females) and 1998 noncarrier family members (56% females) in the study. Subjects and their study partners completed SCD questionnaires and the CERAD word list delayed recall test. ANCOVAs were conducted to examine group differences in SCD, sex, and memory performance. In carriers, partial correlations were used to examine associations between SCD and memory performance covarying for education.
Females in both groups had greater self-reported and study partner-reported SCD than males (all p < 0.001). In female mutation carriers, greater self-reported (p = 0.02) and study partner-reported SCD (p < 0.001) were associated with worse verbal memory. In male mutation carriers, greater self-reported (p = 0.03), but not study partner-reported SCD (p = 0.11) was associated with worse verbal memory.
Study partner-reported SCD may be a stronger indicator of memory decline in females versus males in individuals at risk for developing dementia. Future studies with independent samples and preclinical trials should consider sex differences when recruiting based on SCD criteria.
People living in precarious housing or homelessness have higher than expected rates of psychotic disorders, persistent psychotic symptoms, and premature mortality. Psychotic symptoms can be modeled as a complex dynamic system, allowing assessment of roles for risk factors in symptom development, persistence, and contribution to premature mortality.
The severity of delusions, conceptual disorganization, hallucinations, suspiciousness, and unusual thought content was rated monthly over 5 years in a community sample of precariously housed/homeless adults (n = 375) in Vancouver, Canada. Multilevel vector auto-regression analysis was used to construct temporal, contemporaneous, and between-person symptom networks. Network measures were compared between participants with (n = 219) or without (n = 156) history of psychotic disorder using bootstrap and permutation analyses. Relationships between network connectivity and risk factors including homelessness, trauma, and substance dependence were estimated by multiple linear regression. The contribution of network measures to premature mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models.
Delusions and unusual thought content were central symptoms in the multilevel network. Each psychotic symptom was positively reinforcing over time, an effect most pronounced in participants with a history of psychotic disorder. Global connectivity was similar between those with and without such a history. Greater connectivity between symptoms was associated with methamphetamine dependence and past trauma exposure. Auto-regressive connectivity was associated with premature mortality in participants under age 55.
Past and current experiences contribute to the severity and dynamic relationships between psychotic symptoms. Interrupting the self-perpetuating severity of psychotic symptoms in a vulnerable group of people could contribute to reducing premature mortality.
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are associated with higher risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Decreasing the unnecessary use of FQs and ESCs is a goal of antimicrobial stewardship. Understanding how prescribers perceive the risks and benefits of FQs and ESCs is needed.
We conducted interviews with clinicians from 4 hospitals. Interviews elicited respondent perceptions about the risk of ESCs, FQs, and CDI. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a flexible coding approach.
Interviews were conducted with 64 respondents (38 physicians, 7 nurses, 6 advance practice providers, and 13 pharmacists). ESCs and FQs were perceived to have many benefits, including infrequent dosing, breadth of coverage, and greater patient adherence after hospital discharge. Prescribers stated that it was easy to make decisions about these drugs, so they were especially appealing to use in the context of time pressures. They described having difficulty discontinuing these drugs when prescribed by others due to inertia and fear. Prescribers were skeptical about targeting specific drugs as a stewardship approach and felt that the risk of a negative outcome from under treatment of a suspected bacterial infection was a higher priority than the prevention of CDI.
Prescribers in this study perceived many advantages to using ESCs and FQs, especially under conditions of time pressure and uncertainty. In making decisions about these drugs, prescribers balance risk and benefit, and they believed that the risk of CDI was acceptable in compared with the risk of undertreatment.
Different studies have confirmed the association between cannabis use and psychosis and, also, the relationship between age at first cannabis use and age at onset of psychosis (Henquet et al 2005, Barnes et al 2006). In a young psychiatric sample, we aimed to investigate the correlation between cannabis use and the age at onset of psychotic and non-psychotic symptoms and whether this relationship is modulated by the genetic variability at COMT, CNR1 and CHRNA7genes.
The sample comprised 157 Caucasian patients (mean age: 17.01 (3.6)) diagnosed following DSM-IV-TR criteria: 80 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, 77 patients with affective or conduct disorders. Cannabis use was assessed with UNICA-A and DIGS scales (Nurnberger 1994) and 49% individuals were classified as consumers. SNPs were genotyped using Taqman 5′-exonuclease assays.
We observed a positive relationship between age at first cannabis use and age at onset in, both, schizophrenia-spectrum (β = 1.44 p < 0.001) and other psychiatric disorders (β = 0.56 p < 0.002). An interaction was observed between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and cannabis use specifically within schizophrenia-spectrum disorders’ group (β = −2.72 p = 0.04), with Val/Val genotype carriers showing an earlier age of onset than Val/Met carriers, and these, lower than the Met/Met carriers. No modulation effect of CNR1 or CHRNA7 polymorphisms was observed.
Our results seem to indicate the importance of maturation timing and brain development in which exposition to cannabis occurs. We provide new evidence about the COMT modulation effect on the association between cannabis use and age at onset of symptoms, specifically in individuals affected by schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders in which abnormal events occur during sleep, due to inappropriately timed activation of physiological systems.
we report the case of a 41-year-old female who has no psychiatric history. The patient went to emergency department because when she was starting to sleep, in the first state of sleep, she felts a sensation of paralysis in all her body, with incapacity for breathing, chest oppression and tactile hallucinations like something or someone was touching her entire body. Due to that, the patient awoke frightened, with high levels of anxiety, with heart palpitations, shortness of breath, trembling, choking feeling, sweating, nausea and fear of dying. When the patient arrived to the emergency department, she was suffering a panic attack, thinking that she could have some kind of neurological disease or she was suffering a heart attack. after treating the panic attack with 1 mg of lorazepam, all the symptoms subsided gradually.
in this case report, we present a patient with a new-onset parasomnia, with hypnagogic hallucinations and a panic attack at the awakening. It is known that stress factors are closely associated with parasomnias, as we can see in this case because the patient was moving and she was sleeping in a new place.
Parasomnias are very frequently present in general population and they can trigger intense anxiety status that can lead to panic attacks.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Homeless and precariously housed individuals experience a high burden of comorbid illnesses, and excess mortality. Cross-sectional studies report a high rate of cognitive impairment. Long-term trajectories have not been well investigated in this group.
To longitudinally assess risks for premature and/or accelerated cognitive ageing, and the relationship with early mortality in homeless and precariously housed people.
This is a 9-year community-based study of 375 homeless and precariously housed individuals from Vancouver, Canada. Annual cognitive testing assessed verbal learning and memory, and inhibitory control. Linear mixed-effects models examined associations between clinical risk factors (traumatic brain injury, psychotic disorders, viral exposure, alcohol dependence) and cognitive change over 9 years. Cox regression models examined the association between cognition and mortality.
Traumatic brain injury and alcohol dependence were associated with decline in verbal memory. Inhibitory control declined, independent of risk factors and to a greater extent in those who died during the study. Better inhibitory control was associated with a 6.6% lower risk of mortality at study entry, with a 0.3% greater effect for each year of life. For each one-point increase in the Charlson Comorbidity Index score at study entry, the risk of mortality was 9.9% higher, and was consistent across age. Adjusting for comorbidities, inhibitory control remained a significant predictor of mortality.
Findings raise the possibility of a premature onset, and accelerated trajectory, of cognitive ageing in this group of homeless and precariously housed people. Traumatic brain injury, alcohol dependence and cognition could be treatment priorities.
The improvement in porcine embryo preservation and non-surgical embryo transfer (ET) procedures achieved in recent years represents essential progress for the practical use of ET in the pig industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of parity, weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) and season on reproductive and embryonic parameters at day 6 after insemination of donor sows superovulated after weaning. The selection of donor sows was based on their reproductive history, body condition and parity. The effects of parity at weaning (2 to 3, 4 to 5 or 6 to 7 litters), season (fall, winter and spring), and WEI (estrus within 3 to 4 days), and their interactions on the number of corpus luteum, cysts in sows with cysts, number and quality of viable and transferable embryos, embryo developmental stage and recovery and fertilization rates were evaluated using linear mixed effects models. The analyses showed a lack of significant effects of parity, season, WEI or their interactions on any of the reproductive and embryonic parameters examined. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that fertilization rates and numbers of viable and transferable embryos collected at day 6 of the cycle from superovulated donor sows are not affected by their parity, regardless of the time of the year (from fall to spring) and WEI (3 or 4 days).
The interest in studying gene–gene interactions is increasing for psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD), where multiple genes are involved. Dysbindin-1 (DTNBP1) and Neuritin-1 (NRN1) genes have been previously associated with SSD and both are involved in synaptic plasticity. We aimed to study whether these genes show an epistatic effect on the risk for SSD.
The sample comprised 388 SSD patients and 397 healthy subjects. Interaction was tested between: (i) three DTNBP1 SNPs (rs2619537, rs2743864, rs1047631) related to changes in gene expression; and (ii) an haplotype in NRN1 previously associated with the risk for SSD (rs645649-rs582262: HAP-risk C-C).
An interaction between DTNBP1 rs2743864 and NRN1 HAP-risk was detected by using the model based multifactor dimensionality reduction (MB-MDR) approach (P = 0.0049, after permutation procedure), meaning that the risk for SSD is significantly higher in those subjects carrying both the A allele of rs2743864 and the HAP-risk C-C. This interaction was confirmed by using a logistic regression model (P = 0.033, OR (95%CI) = 2.699 (1.08–6.71), R2 = 0.162).
Our results suggest that DTNBP1 and NRN1 genes show a joint effect on the risk for SSD. Although the precise mechanism underlying this effect is unclear, the fact that these genes have been involved in synaptic maturation, connectivity and glutamate signalling suggests that our findings could be of value as a link to the schizophrenia aetiology.
The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), which is the total radiation arriving at Earth's atmosphere from the Sun, is one of the most important forcing of the Earths climate. Measurements of the TSI have been made employing instruments on board several space-based platforms during the last four solar cycles. However, combining these measurements is still challenging due to the degradation of the sensor elements and the long-term stability of the electronics. Here we describe the preliminary efforts to design an absolute radiometer based on the principle of electrical substitution that is under development at Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE).
Ammonia was searched in the direction of 46 sources placed in the southern hemisphere where H2CO or H2O was detected previously. Observations were carried out at Itapetinga Radio Observatory, Atibaia, Brazil using a 13.7 m paraboloid. The receiver used for these observations had a K-band ruby travelling wave maser as a preamplifier and the system temperature ranged from 250 to 300K. All sources were observed at least twice, each observation lasting for 30 minutes. The filter bank used consisted of 47 contiguous channels with 100 kHz bandwidth. Results are presented on Table 1 — Positive results and Table 2 — Negative results.
I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6–7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.
The response of platform reefs to sea-level stabilization over the past 6 ka is well established for the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), with reefs typically accreting laterally from windward to leeward. However, these observations are based on few cores spread across reef zones and may not accurately reflect a reef's true accretional response to the Holocene stillstand. We present a new record of reef accretion based on 49 U/Th ages from Heron and One Tree reefs in conjunction with re-analyzed data from 14 reefs across the GBR. We demonstrate that hydrodynamic energy is the main driver of accretional direction; exposed reefs accreted primarily lagoon-ward while protected reefs accreted seawards, contrary to the traditional growth model in the GBR. Lateral accretion rates varied from 86.3 m/ka–42.4 m/ka on the exposed One Tree windward reef and 68.35 m/ka–15.7 m/ka on the protected leeward Heron reef, suggesting that wind/wave energy is not a dominant control on lateral accretion rates. This represents the most comprehensive statement of lateral accretion direction and rates from the mid-outer platform reefs of the GBR, confirming great variability in reef flat growth both within and between reef margins over the last 6 ka, and highlighting the need for closely-spaced transects.
Since the beginning of agriculture, crops have been exposed to recurrent invasion by weeds that can impose severe reductions in crop quality and yield. There have been continuing efforts to reduce the impacts of weeds on production. More than 40 yr ago, overreliance on herbicide technology to reduce weed infestations resulted in the selection of adaptive traits that enabled weed survival and reproduction under herbicide treatments (Délye et al. 2007; Powles and Yu 2010; Vila-Aiub et al. 2008). As a result, herbicide resistance in > 200 weed species has evolved worldwide (Heap 2013; Powles 2008).
To investigate rates of psychopathology in the offspring of subjects with bipolar disorder (BP-offspring) compared to the offspring of healthy subjects (HC-offspring) in a Spanish sample and to study possible predictors of psychopathology in BP-offspring.
Fifty BP-offspring from 36 families and 25 HC-offspring from 25 families.
Psychopathology was compared in BP-offspring and HC-offspring. Factors associated with DSM-IV axis I disorders in BP-offspring were analyzed using logistic regression.
Half of BP-offspring fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for at least one axis I disorder with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (30%), anxiety disorders (14%) and affective disorders (10%) as the most frequent. After controlling for having more than one sibling in the study, the odds ratio for BP-offspring presenting an axis I disorder was 15.02 when a biological parent had bipolar disorder with a lifetime history of psychotic symptoms and 3.34 when one parent had bipolar II disorder. Moreover, a higher Global Assessment of Functioning score in the biological co-parent was associated with a significantly lower frequency of axis I disorders in BP-offspring.
Discussion and conclusions
Psychopathology in BP-offspring should be routinely assessed, with special emphasis on children from parents with specific disease characteristics (psychosis, BP II disorder) in order to establish an early diagnosis and appropriate interventions.
We present a one–zone jet model that fits the data from simultaneous broadband radio-to-X-rays observations of XTE J1118+480. We calculate the radiative contribution to the non-thermal spectrum of both relativistic electrons and protons, as well as that from secondary muons, charged pions and electron-positron pairs produced at high-energy hadronic interactions. The distributions in energy of all the particle species are obtained taking into account the energy losses, injection, decay and escape from the emission region. We also include absorption effects on the emission spectrum due to photon-photon annihilation. Finally, we discuss the detectability of XTE J1118+480 at high energies with the present instruments according to the predictions of our model for the gamma-ray band.
Benefits from probiotic micro-organisms have been recognised for over 100 years, and as being useful in poultry for 50 years. Fuller (1989) redefined probiotics as ‘a live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance’. Benefits derived from this improved intestinal microbial balance could be reflected in performance or prevention of pathogen colonisation. Probiotic micro-organisms use in poultry production has been widely accepted and new opportunities arose from the 2006 EU ban on antimicrobial growth promoters. The majority of microbial products for compound feeds are made up from a relatively small number of micro-organisms that are normally present in the GI tract. They include non-sporulated bacteria, sporulated bacteria, fungi or yeasts; and presented from single to multi-strain products. A review on the proposed modes of action is presented including recent approaches to quorum sensing interference.
Functional imaging studies using working memory tasks have documented both prefrontal cortex (PFC) hypo- and hyperactivation in schizophrenia. However, these studies have often failed to consider the potential role of task-related deactivation.
Thirty-two patients with chronic schizophrenia and 32 age- and sex-matched normal controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing baseline, 1-back and 2-back versions of the n-back task. Linear models were used to obtain maps of activations and deactivations in the groups.
The controls showed activation in the expected frontal regions. There were also clusters of deactivation, particularly in the anterior cingulate/ventromedial PFC and the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus. Compared to the controls, the schizophrenic patients showed reduced activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and other frontal areas. There was also an area in the anterior cingulate/ventromedial PFC where the patients showed apparently greater activation than the controls. This represented a failure of deactivation in the schizophrenic patients. Failure to activate was a function of the patients' impaired performance on the n-back task, whereas the failure to deactivate was less performance dependent.
Patients with schizophrenia show both failure to activate and failure to deactivate during performance of a working memory task. The area of failure of deactivation is in the anterior prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex and corresponds to one of the two midline components of the ‘default mode network’ implicated in functions related to maintaining one's sense of self.
In Argentinean crop fields, weed control is mainly achieved by intense use of glyphosate as a nonselective and/or selective herbicide. Glyphosate use is very high as more than 95% of the 16 million ha soybean crop consists of glyphosate-resistant cultivars, always treated with this herbicide. From initial success, inconsistent glyphosate control of Johnsongrass, an invading C4 perennial grass of soybean crops, has become evident to producers from northern Argentina over the last 3 yr. Prior to this, glyphosate provided good control. This study evaluated the nature of these recurrent glyphosate failures in Johnsongrass. Experiments conducted with Johnsongrass plants obtained from seed and rhizome phytomers collected from fields with intense glyphosate use history showed that these populations showed differential survival and biomass productivity when glyphosate treated than Johnsongrass plants obtained from similar propagules collected from field sites with no history of glyphosate use. This empirical evidence establishes that the Johnsongrass survival in glyphosate-treated transgenic soybean fields from northern Argentina is due to evolved glyphosate resistance.