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El objetivo de este trabajo es examinar la presencia o ausencia de una ideología colectiva en la expresión iconográfica de la cerámica polícroma de Tepeticpac, asentamiento fundador y miembro activo de Tlaxcallan durante el Posclásico tardío (1250–1519 dC). De acuerdo con la teoría de acción colectiva recientemente aplicada para Tlaxcallan, hipotetizamos que estas vasijas deberían carecer de íconos ligados a nobles, gobernantes o personajes particulares, promoviendo más bien la unidad colectiva. Para evaluar esta hipótesis, analizamos materiales procedentes de diversas excavaciones realizadas en plazas, conjuntos arquitectónicos, terrazas y templos. Concluimos que, lejos de privilegiar a personajes, individuos o incluso a una deidad en particular, la cerámica polícroma más bien muestra temas que no fueron regulados por las élites políticas y que están centrados en alusiones al sacrificio, la guerra, las festividades, los dioses, la jerarquía noble y probablemente, los méritos por conquista, temas y actividades en los que cualquier individuo, a cualquier rango, pudo involucrarse.
We investigated the distribution of comorbidities among adult tuberculosis (TB) patients in Chiapas, the poorest Mexican state, with a high presence of indigenous population, and a corridor for migrants from Latin America. Secondary analysis on 5508 new adult TB patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 revealed that the most prevalent comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (DM; 19.1%) and undernutrition (14.4%). The prevalence of DM in these TB patients was significantly higher among middle aged (41–64 years) compared with older adults (⩾65 years) (38.6% vs. 23.2%; P < 0.0001). The prevalence of undernutrition was lower among those with DM, and higher in communities with high indigenous presence. Immigrants only comprised 2% of all TB cases, but were more likely to have unfavourable TB treatment outcomes (treatment failure, death and default) when compared with those born in Chiapas (29.5% vs. 11.1%; P < 0.05). Unfavourable TB outcomes were also more prevalent among the TB patients with undernutrition, HIV or older age, but not DM (P < 0.05). Our study in Chiapas illustrates the challenges of other regions worldwide where social (e.g. indigenous origin, poverty, migration) and host factors (DM, undernutrition, HIV, older age) are associated with TB. Further understanding of these critical factors will guide local policy makers and health providers to improve TB management.
Establishing accurate morphological measurements of galaxies in a reasonable amount of time for future big-data surveys such as EUCLID, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope or the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a challenge. Because of its high level of abstraction with little human intervention, deep learning appears to be a promising approach. Deep learning is a rapidly growing discipline that models high-level patterns in data as complex multilayered networks. In this work we test the ability of deep convolutional networks to provide parametric properties of Hubble Space Telescope like galaxies (half-light radii, Sérsic indices, total flux etc..). We simulate a set of galaxies including point spread function and realistic noise from the CANDELS survey and try to recover the main galaxy parameters using deep-learning. We compare the results with the ones obtained with the commonly used profile fitting based software GALFIT. This way showing that with our method we obtain results at least equally good as the ones obtained with GALFIT but, once trained, with a factor 5 hundred time faster.
The light-curves of many variables, prepared from a large number of individual estimates by many different observers, have a lot of scatter, ranges greater than one magnitude being common, although it is generally accepted that the eye can detect differences of roughly 0.1 magnitude, at least for stars of moderate brightness. The question arises whether these gross discrepancies can be reduced. We think that this is possible if observers make better use of their observational capabilities.
For certain types of variable stars, e.g. long-period ones, the lack of accuracy may often be balanced by the vast number of estimates available. But for other stars, especially those exhibiting small-amplitude fluctuations, this process of combining observations leads to broad light curves that completely hide any possible fluctuations. Variable-star observers are familiar with these problems, but it is desirable to try to improve the accuracy that can be obtained.
I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6–7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.
Nafion α-relaxation has been the subject of intense investigations as it regulates the performance of electric actuators and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC). Dielectric spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of Nafion membranes allowed identifying the conformation transition of the polymeric aggregates as the process underlying the α-transition. The dielectric permittivity curves of Nafion showed that for temperatures T > 120 °C, the α-relaxation displaces to lower frequencies. Such unusual behavior was attributed to an elongation of Nafion polymeric aggregates occurring at T ∼ 120 °C and is in agreement with both water uptake measurements and morphological changes inferred from AFM analyses.
Caregivers report early disturbances in social behavior among patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD); however, there are few direct observational studies of these social behavioral disturbances. This study aimed to identify social behavioral themes in bvFTD by direct observation in naturalistic interactions. The identification of these themes can help caregivers and clinicians manage the social behavioral disturbances of this disease.
Researchers observed 13 bvFTD patients in their homes and community-based settings and recorded field notes on their interpersonal interactions. A qualitative analysis of their social behavior was then conducted using ATLAS.ti application and a constant comparison method.
Qualitative analysis revealed the following themes: (1) diminished relational interest and initiation, indicating failure to seek social interactions; (2) lack of social synchrony/intersubjectivity, indicating an inability to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships; and (3) poor awareness and adherence to social boundaries and norms. These themes corresponded with changes from caregiver reports and behavioral scales.
This analysis indicates that real-world observation validates the diagnostic criteria for bvFTD and increases understanding of social behavioral disturbances in this disorder. The results of this and future observational studies can highlight key areas for clinical assessment, caregiver education, and targeted interventions that enhance the management of social behavioral disturbances in bvFTD.
Weekly data from 7 years (2004–2010) of primary-care counts of acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) and local weather readings were used to adjust a multivariate time-series vector error correction model with covariates (VECMX). Weather variables were included through a partial least squares index that consisted of weekly minimum temperature (coefficient = − 0·26), weekly median of relative humidity (coefficient = 0·22) and weekly accumulated rainfall (coefficient = 0·5). The VECMX long-term test reported significance for trend (0·01, P = 0·00) and weather index (1·69, P = 0·00). Short-term relationship was influenced by seasonality. The model accounted for 76% of the variability in the series (adj. R2 = 0·76), and the co-integration diagnostics confirmed its appropriateness. The procedure is easily reproducible by researchers in all climates, can be used to identify relevant weather fluctuations affecting the incidence of ARIs, and could help clarify the influence of contact rates on the spread of these diseases.
The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology and determinants of anti-hepatitis A seroprevalence in 2- to 19-year-olds in the USA for 2007–2008. This study was conducted in a sample of 2621 individuals aged 2–19 years in the USA using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2008. The overall seroprevalence of anti- hepatitis A virus (HAV) in this population was 39% (95% confidence interval 32·6–45·3). HAV seroprevalence was higher in Mexican Americans than other ethnic groups, in younger persons, and in those who reported previous vaccination compared to those who did not. We concluded that anti-hepatitis A seroprevalence rates are increasing in younger individuals in the USA, indicating a shift of seroprevalence over time due to vaccination status. Findings are consistent with a persistent influx of infection through international travel and migration and highlight the need to discern hepatitis A infection from vaccination status when assessing the effectiveness of vaccination using seroprevalence data.
Brassica rapa subsp. rapa L. includes three different
crops: turnips (roots), turnip greens (leaves) and turnip tops (inflorescences). A
collection of B. rapa subsp. rapa from north-western
Spain is currently kept at ‘Misión Biológica de
Galicia’ (a research centre of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones
Científicas (CSIC), Spain). This collection has been characterized based on
morphological and agronomical traits. A better understanding of the genetic diversity
present in the collection is necessary in order to optimize its use and maintenance. The
objectives of the present work were to assess the genetic diversity present in the
B. rapa subsp. rapa collection, to establish genetic
relationships among populations and to study the genetic structure of the collection.
Eighty populations were analysed based on 18 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Populations
showed a broad range of genetic diversity, thus offering good potential for further
genetic improvement. Most of the variability was found within the population level,
probably due to high rates of allogamy, to migration and/or interchange of seed among
local growers. Populations showed a low level of differentiation, grouping in just one
cluster, and therefore they can be considered as samples of a highly variable
metapopulation that can be used for B. rapa breeding programmes.
A multiprocess CVD system with the following main features is designed and constructed: the wafer holder is made of a Si wafer with diameter larger than the process wafers. This larger holder produces a better temperature uniformity on the process wafer. A good thermal contact between holder and process wafer is obtained by an electrostatic clamp. The holder supports the process wafer facing down. A remote plasma is produced in a small chamber inside the process chamber. The 100 KHz RF frequency keeps the system very simple and cheap while still reasonable ionization is achieved. SiO2 films were deposited using SiH4 and O2 with and without remote plasma of O2. At low temperatures and 1.5 Torr, process activation energies of about 0.9 and 0.3 eV were obtained respectively.
In February 2008, three white-nosed coatis (Nasua narica) were found dead in a recreational park in Cancun, Mexico. The diagnosis of rabies virus (RABV) infection was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence test. The phylogenetic analysis performed with the complete RABV nucleoprotein gene positioned this isolate close to a sequence of a human rabies case reported during 2008 from Oaxaca, Mexico, sharing 93% similarity. In turn, these two variants are related to another variant found in rabid Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana bats across North America. Anti-RABV neutralizing activity (1·3 IU/ml) was found in the serum of one white-nosed coati captured with another five that cohabited with the dead animals. Enhanced rabies surveillance and pathogenesis studies should be conducted in coatis and insectivorous bats of the region to clarify the role of these species as potential emergent or long-term unidentified RABV reservoirs.
Neurocysticercosis is a public health problem in many developing countries and is the most frequent parasitic disease of the brain. The human tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor for acquiring neurocysticercosis. Since the parasite lodges only in the human intestine, experimental models of Taenia solium taeniosis have been explored. Macaques, pigs, dogs, cats and rabbits are unsuccessful hosts even in immunodepressed status. By contrast, rodents are adequate hosts since tapeworms with mature, pregravid and, in some cases, gravid proglottids develop after infection. In this review, information that has been generated with experimental models of taeniosis due to T. solium is discussed. Initially, the use of the model for immunodiagnosis of human taeniosis and evaluation of intervention measures is summarized. Next, descriptions of tapeworms and comparison of hamsters, gerbils and other mammals as experimental models are discussed, as well as data on the humoral immune response, the inflammatory reaction and the production of cytokines associated to Th1 and Th2 responses in the intestinal mucosa. Finally, evaluation of protection induced against the development of tapeworms by recombinant T. solium calreticulin in hamsters is summarized and compared to other studies.
Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray emission is of great importance in several phenomena related to the formation of planetary systems and the atmospheres of planets. The atmospheric composition, and the mass of an exoplanet, are partly dependent on the X-ray and EUV radiation received during the first stages of formation and even during main sequence of the star. Biological life developing on exoplanets would depend severely on the high energy radiation arriving from its parent star.
Here we present a database of the X-ray and EUV emission of all the stars currently known to host exoplanets. The archive is public and accessible through the Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO). The database gives the user the option to download observed X-rays and EUV spectra. Synthetic spectra covering the spectral range 1–912 Å are also available (present day telescopes do not give access to the EUV range at λ > 180 Å). These spectra are created using coronal models after fitting observed spectra.
After the sinking of the oil carrier ‘Prestige’, which occurred in November 2002, approximately 60,000 mt of heavy oil (type M-100) were spilled into the ocean. Immediately after the accident, a series of management measures were applied to fisheries in the area, resulting in the establishment of various closed areas. Four of the most important fleets operating in the north and north-east of the Iberian Peninsula were affected (otter trawl, pair trawl, purse seine and hand line fishing gears). These fleets exploit important fisheries resources, some of them currently beyond their biological security limits. Reductions in effort were observed in all of them, particularly in the first three months of the ban and in the north-eastern area. However, apart from the hand line fleet, this did not involve a considerable reduction in the total effort produced by each of the fleets in 2003. The pair trawlers perform two trip types, but no differences in the specific composition were observed in any of them during the three years under analysis. Five types of trawling trip were identified, but important reductions were only observed for Norwegian lobster, with the fleet targeting this species as well as hake, megrim and monkfish.