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To use Internet search data to compare duration of compliance for various diets.
Using a passive surveillance digital epidemiological approach, we estimated the average duration of diet compliance by examining monthly Internet searches for recipes related to popular diets. We fit a mathematical model to these data to estimate the time spent on a diet by new January dieters (NJD) and to estimate the percentage of dieters dropping out during the American winter holiday season between Thanksgiving and the end of December.
Internet searches in the USA for recipes related to popular diets over a 15-year period from 2004 to 2019.
Individuals in the USA performing Internet searches for recipes related to popular diets.
All diets exhibited significant seasonality in recipe-related Internet searches, with sharp spikes every January followed by a decline in the number of searches and a further decline in the winter holiday season. The Paleo diet had the longest average compliance times among NJD (5.32 ± 0.68 weeks) and the lowest dropout during the winter holiday season (only 14 ± 3 % dropping out in December). The South Beach diet had the shortest compliance time among NJD (3.12 ± 0.64 weeks) and the highest dropout during the holiday season (33 ± 7 % dropping out in December).
The current study is the first of its kind to use passive surveillance data to compare the duration of adherence with different diets and underscores the potential usefulness of digital epidemiological approaches to understanding health behaviours.
Predation by Engytatus varians (Distant) adults on different development stages of the prey species Bactericera cockerelli (Sulcer) (egg, second, and third nymphal instars), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (egg, first, and second larval instars) was evaluated using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaflets or plants. These insects are the primary pest of several agriculturally important crops. The influence of E. varians age on the predation capacity was also analysed. Engytatus varians females consumed significantly more B. cockerelli eggs and nymphs than males. Additionally, female predators consumed significantly more second than third instar prey at two predator ages, while males consumed significantly more the second instar than third instar prey at all predator ages. In most of the cases, females also consumed significantly more S. exigua and S. frugiperda eggs than males; however, in terms of larvae consumption, this difference was observed only in some predator ages. Females consumed more the first than second instar S. exigua than males, whereas this behaviour was only observed in males when the predators were 15 and 17 days old. No significant differences were observed in the consumption of first and second instar of S. frugiperda for both sexes of the predators. Predator age did not cause any systematic effects on the predation rates of any prey species. Based on these results, we confirmed that E. varians has potential as a biological control agent for B. cockerelli and also for the Spodoptera species bioassayed.
To assess quality of life of children and teenagers with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, according to the evidence of infection by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11, compared with healthy volunteers and patients with chronic otitis media.
Participants and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0.
Patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and their parents reported lower quality of life than healthy subjects (p < 0.01), but similar quality of life to patients with chronic otitis media. Those with human papillomavirus type 11 showed the lowest scores among all participants (p < 0.05).
Young Mexican patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and their parents perceive a poor quality of life, and they may experience limitations in interactions with their peers. Infection by human papillomavirus type 11 may increase the impact of the disease on quality of life.
This paper reports the results of the first three in a series of experiments on tactile perception which form part of a larger project on tactile perceptions and spatial representations and the design of tactile interfaces for mobility devices for blind, partially sighted and deafblind people. The results indicate the potential of tactile interfaces, including to support environmental exploration and mobility. The participants showed reasonably good ability to determine the direction of motion of an arrow, with best recognition rates in the up and right directions. They showed reasonably good ability to use a tactile interface to detect and avoid obstacles after a very short learning period and more limited ability to learn and remember an environmental representation using information from a tactile interface and walking through the environment without specific instructions.
To describe the development and application of the School Food Environment Assessment Tools and a novel scoring system to assess the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in elementary and secondary schools.
The cross-sectional study included direct observations of physical food environments and interviews with key school personnel regarding food-related programmes and policies. A five-point scoring system was then developed to assess actions across six domains: (i) food gardens; (ii) composting systems; (iii) food preparation activities; (iv) food-related teaching and learning activities; and availability of (v) healthy food; and (vi) environmentally sustainable food.
A purposive sample of public schools (n 33) from all six sectors of the Vancouver Board of Education.
Schools scored highest in the areas of food garden and compost system development and use. Regular integration of food-related teaching and learning activities and hands-on food preparation experiences were also commonly reported. Most schools demonstrated rudimentary efforts to make healthy and environmentally sustainable food choices available, but in general scored lowest on these two domains. Moreover, no schools reported widespread initiatives fully supporting availability or integration of healthy or environmentally sustainable foods across campus.
More work is needed in all areas to fully integrate programmes and policies that support healthy, environmentally sustainable food systems in Vancouver schools. The assessment tools and proposed indicators offer a practical approach for researchers, policy makers and school stakeholders to assess school food system environments, identify priority areas for intervention and track relevant changes over time.
A metallurgical by product mostly constituted of Wustita (FeO) was transformed to Magnetite (Fe3O4) spheres using a flame treatment. Then magnetite spheres surface was modified by cold plasma treatment with ethylene, where a thin polyethylene film was deposited on the spheres surface. Finally, HDPE composites with modified spheres were obtained by melt mixing and its thermal conductivity was determined by MDSC. It was found that spheres surface modification helps to increase composites thermal conductivity.
To examine associations between students’ socio-economic status (SES) and school-day dietary intake, and the roles of parents and peers in shaping these associations.
A cross-sectional survey measured school-day intake of vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk, packaged snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Logistic regression models examined associations between SES (parental education and food insecurity status) and dietary outcomes during or en route to or from school, and examined whether peer modelling or parental norms potentially mediated the associations between SES and dietary outcomes.
Twenty-six public schools in Vancouver, Canada in 2012.
Nine hundred and fifty students in grades 5–8.
Students whose parents completed some college, compared with those completing high school or less, were significantly more likely to consume vegetables daily (unadjusted OR=1·85; 95 % CI 1·06, 3·22) and students whose parents completed college or university were significantly less likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages daily (unadjusted OR=0·67; 95 % CI 0·47, 0·94). Food secure students were also significantly less likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages daily compared with food insecure students (unadjusted OR=0·52; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·92). Parental norms, but not peer modelling, emerged as a potential mediator of the association between SES and vegetable intake. SES was not significantly associated with the remaining dietary outcomes.
Higher SES was significantly associated with two of five school-day dietary outcomes and predicted higher likelihood of daily nutritious food choices at school. The present study suggests that there is room for improvement in school-day dietary quality for students from all SES backgrounds in Vancouver.
Collagen-covered prostheses can be used as a non-circumferential segmental tracheal replacement. However, the applicability of these implants in young subjects has not yet been reported.
In this experimental, longitudinal study, dogs aged 29–32 days underwent limited segmental tracheal replacement with a polyester prosthesis or were allocated to a control, untreated group. The dogs were evaluated clinically, endoscopically and tomographically for up to one year.
Although there was evidence of tracheal growth in the experimental group, tomographic measurements were significantly smaller in this group than in the control group throughout the observation period. At the end of the study, there was no evidence of implant rejection, stenosis or collapse. Normal respiratory epithelium had grown across the implanted membrane in the experimental group.
The homologous collagen mersylene membrane allowed for limited structural tracheal growth and was functionally integrated into the segmented tracheal wall in growing dogs.
Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) have been applied to the study of structural and optical properties of ZnO nanocrystals prepared by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) at different temperatures. The variation of temperatures and times at the growth of ZnO films permits modifying the ZnO phase from the amorphous to crystalline, to change the size of ZnO nanocrystals (NCs), as well as to vary their photoluminescence spectra. The study has revealed three types of PL bands in ZnO NCs: defect related emission, the near-band-edge (NBE) PL, related to the LO phonon replica of free exciton (FE) recombination, and its second-order diffraction peaks. The PL bands, related to the LO phonon replica of FE, and its second-order diffraction in the room temperature Pl spectrum testify on the high quality of ZnO films prepared by the USP technology.
The increasing use of polymeric reinforcements in concrete structures requires either the development of a new design theory or the adaptation of current designs considering the engineering properties of this type of materials. In this work a method for calculating the deflections of reinforced concrete elements is proposed, which can be used in predicting the flexural behavior of longitudinally reinforced concrete with PET strips in amounts up to 1%. The model theory assumes that concrete has a tensile load capacity different to zero, characterized by a uniaxial tensile stress-strain diagram. A series of tests were conducted to corroborate the validity of the suggested method, showing that the theory also correctly predicts the creep deformation post-cracking. The deflection results of reinforced concrete with recycled PET strips are presented. The tests are carried out by a simple beam with center-point loading, using three different amounts of reinforcement and comparing the experimental results with the theoretical results of the proposed model.
We present a technique to detect Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies (UFDs) in the Galactic Halo, using sky and proper motion information.The method uses wavelet transforms to detect peaks in the sky and proper motion planes, and to evaluate the probability of these being stochastic fluctuations. We aim to map thoroughly the detection limits of this technique. For this, we have produced a library of 15,000 synthetic UFDs, embedded in the Gaia Universe Model Snapshot (GUMS) background (Robin et al. 2012), each at a different distance, different luminosity, half-light radius, velocity dispersion and center-of-mass velocity, varying in ranges that extend well beyond those spanned by known classical and ultra-faint dSphs. We use these synthetic UFDs as a benchmark to characterize the completeness and detection limits of our technique, and present our results as a function of different physical and observable parameters of the UFDs (see full poster for more details at https://gaia.ub.edu/Twiki/pub/GREATITNFC/ProgramFinalconference/Poster_UFGX_Bcn_C_Mateu.pdf).
The photoluminescence, its temperature dependences, as well as structural characteristics obtained by the method of Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) have been studied in ZnO:Ag nanorods prepared by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP). PL spectra of ZnO:Ag NRs in the temperature range from 10 K to 300 K are investigated. Three types of PL bands have been revealed: i) the near-band-edge (NBE) emission, ii) defect related emission and iii) IR emission. It is shown that IR emission corresponds to the second-order diffraction of near-band-edge (NBE) emission bands. The study of NBE PL temperature dependences reveals that the acceptor bound exciton (ABE) and its second-order diffraction peak disappeared at the temperature higher than 200 K. The attenuation of the ABE peak intensity is ascribed to the thermal dissociation of ABE with appearing a free exciton (FE). The PL bands, related to the LO phonon replica of FE and its second-order diffraction, dominate in the PL spectra at room temperature that testify on the high quality of ZnO:Ag films prepared by the USP technology.
Genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi may play a role in pathogenesis of Chagas disease forms. Natural populations are classified into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) Tc I-VI with taxonomical status. This study aimed to identify T. cruzi DTUs in bloodstream and tissue samples of Argentinean patients with Chagas disease. PCR-based strategies allowed DTU identification in 256 clinical samples from 239 Argentinean patients. Tc V prevailed in blood from both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases and Tc I was more frequent in bloodstream, cardiac tissues and chagoma samples from immunosuppressed patients. Tc II and VI were identified in a minority of cases, while Tc III and Tc IV were not detected in the studied population. Interestingly, Tc I and Tc II/VI sequences were amplified from the same skin biopsy slice from a kidney transplant patient suffering Chagas disease reactivation. Further data also revealed the occurrence of mixed DTU populations in the human chronic infection. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of the complexity of the dynamics of T. cruzi diversity in the natural history of human Chagas disease and allege the pathogenic role of DTUs I, II, V and VI in the studied population.
A characteristic mechanism of gene expression regulation during seed germination is the selective translation of mRNAs. Previous findings indicate that the two cap-binding complexes eIF4F (with eIF4E and eIF4G subunits) and eIF(iso)4F [with eIF(iso)4E and eIF(iso)4G subunits] are differentially expressed during maize seed germination. In addition, several studies in vitro have suggested that these factors may participate in selective mRNA translation. The translational activities of eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E were tested in vitro using transcripts from two different sets: dry (0 h) and 24-h-imbibed maize embryonic axes. In vitro translation of these mRNA pools in the presence of the recombinant eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E, and the native cap-binding complexes from dry- or 24-h-imbibed axes, produced different profiles of proteins which were visualized by two-dimensional protein gels and autoradiography. The data indicated that eIF(iso)4E was particularly required for translation of the stored mRNAs from dry seeds, and that eIF4E was unable to fully replace the eIF(iso)4E activity. In addition, the dry seed mRNA pool was translated by the cap-binding complex isolated from dry seeds better than by the complex isolated from 24-h-imbibed seeds, whereas the translational efficiency of the mRNA pool from 24-h-imbibed seeds was similar between the cap-binding complexes from these two stages. Interestingly, eIF(iso)4E was more abundant than eIF4E in dry seeds, while both cap-binding proteins were present at similar levels in 24-h-imbibed seeds. These results suggest that the ratio of eIF(iso)4E to eIF4E in the corresponding eIF4F complex is critical for the mechanisms of translational control during maize germination.
Introduction. Rhizopus stolonifer is the
causal agent of Rhizopus rot disease in various fruit and vegetables.
Materials and methods. The effect of chitosan was evaluated in
vitro on mycelial growth, sporulation, morphological characteristics and
germination of spores of three isolates of R. stolonifer (from peach,
papaya and tomato). The effect of chitosan on controlling Rhizopus decay
in peach, papaya and tomato fruit in situ in comparison with the
synthetic fungicide dichloran was also studied. Results and discussion. Our
results showed that the mycelial growth and sporulation of the three isolates were
markedly inhibited at all tested chitosan concentrations. The highest antifungal indexes
and sporulation reduction were observed with chitosan at 2 mg·mL–1. In our
study, the morphological characteristics of the spores of R. stolonifer
showed different behavior depending on the evaluated isolates. In general, the highest
effect on germination was observed at the chitosan concentration of 2 mg·mL–1.
Our results demonstrated that chitosan was effective in reducing the percentage of
infection and the severity index on peach, papaya and tomato fruit compared with those of
non-treated control. The chitosan was not more effective than dichloran in reducing the
percentage of infection. The results of the study suggest that chitosan
(2 mg·mL–1) is a good alternative for the control of
Rhizopus decay on peach, papaya and tomato fruit; it could be
considered as a potential agent in natural alternatives to control postharvest
The multiple-gate aspect of the Screen Grid Field Effect Transistor (SGrFET) increases functionality and reduces component count of circuits. An independently-driven gate SGrFET is used to control the switching voltage as well as the gain factor of an inverter. The multi-gate configuration of the SGrFET allows a decrease in output conductance without an increase of transistors count. This leads to a reduction in fabrication complexity, chip area and parasitics. In addition, a simple SGrFETs-based current mirror circuit is proposed with gain factor control.
The anthelmintic effect of Prosopis laevigata (mezquite) n-hexanic extract was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus endoparasitic stages in artificially infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Prosopis laevigata leaves were collected from the Sierra de Huautla, Ecological Reserve of the Biosphere, in Morelos State, Mexico; dehydrated under shade and macerated with n-hexane for 3 days, followed by distillation for 8 h. This procedure was repeated three times and the final extract was kept at 4°C. The in vivo effect of the plant extract was evaluated in gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus. Plant extract concentration was 40 mg/ml. Three groups of gerbils were as follows: group 1 (n = 7), P. laevigata extract at 100 μl intraperitoneally (IP); group 2 (n = 6), control – Tween 20 in water at a single dose of 100 μ l IP; group 3 (n = 8) also served as a control, receiving water only, to determine the mortality due to causes other than the plant extract. An additional group of seven gerbils (group 4) was administered fenbendazole, as a positive control. Five days later the animals were euthanized and stomach and mucosa removed to quantify the nematodes. Data were analysed using the Student's t-test to compare the mean of nematodes obtained in groups 1, 2 and 3. The parasite population in the plant extract treated group 1 was reduced by 42.5% (P < 0.05) with respect to the control group 2; and when control group 3 was used for comparison the parasitic reduction was estimated as 53.11%. This study shows the in vivo anthelmintic effect of P. laevigatan-hexane extract for the first time, using gerbils as an in vivo model, with potential use in sheep.