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The relationship between epilepsy and the presence of visceral larva migrans caused by Toxocara canis in Mexican children remains uncertain; however, this relationship needs to be elucidated because these parasite larvae can invade the human central nervous system. Accordingly, this study aimed to determine the frequency and specificity of anti-T. canis antibodies in the sera of children with epilepsy to determine the relationship between this parasite and epilepsy. The sera samples of 214 children were examined: 111 children diagnosed with epilepsy and 103 clinically healthy children without neurological disorders. In the sera of each group, the presence and specificity of anti-T. canis and anti-Ascaris lumbricoides antibodies, as well as the cross-reactivity between them, were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analysis. Among the children with epilepsy, 25.2% exhibited seropositivity to T. canis. Cross-reactivity against the A. lumbricoides antigen was present in 46.8% of the children with epilepsy, whereas 11.7% of the children with epilepsy and anti-T. canis antibodies did not exhibit cross-reactivity against this antigen. The Western blotting analysis of the sera from the children with epilepsy demonstrated the presence of T. canis proteins, with molecular weights of 24, 35, 55, 70, 120 and 210 kDa, and A lumbricoides proteins with molecular weights of 70, 80 and 110 kDa. Our results revealed the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies in the children with epilepsy; furthermore, cross-reactivity tests with A. lumbricoides showed the importance of the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies in revealing the relationship between this parasite and epilepsy in children.
The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.
After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017–March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.
Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.
Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.
The predominantly carbonate nature of the mountains near the coast of Málaga and Marbella (Costa del Sol, southern Spain) and the presence of springs have favored the formation of travertine buildups during the Quaternary. The geomorphic characteristics of the slopes and the location of the springs have determined the development of three types of travertine growths: (1) spring travertines, located preferentially on the south mountainside, where the slope is steepest; (2) pool-dam-cascade travertines, which form along the north and east edges, far from the carbonate relief and with a gentler slope; and (3) river-valley travertines, formed in the courses of the springs of any sector. Field observations combined with new amino acid racemization (AAR) dating of Helicidae gastropods show that most of the travertine formations are polyphasic and that their development was interrupted by stages of erosion and incision. Five stages of travertine development are evident, most of which are related to warm, moist episodes corresponding to marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 7, 5, 3, and 1, although local travertine growth also occurred during MIS 6 and during the transition from MIS 3 to 2.
The purpose of this work is to study the effect of SiO2- and Al2O3-NPs on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld bead (WB) created by a process of Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) between two AISI 1025 steel plates. Also it was necessary consider the chemical compositions of slags and burned fluxes, in order to determine the elements that are deposited and contribute in the final microstructure of WB. The welding materials to form each WB were a M12K electrode, a commercial fused flux (CFF) and AISI 1025 steel plates bevelled at 45°. In addition SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs an ethylic alcohol mixture were applied directly to the beveled surfaces, just before the SAW process, which was carried out according to the AWS A5.17 norm. Microstructural and phase changes at the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Welding Zone (WZ) were analysed by metallographic Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopies. The mechanical properties of the WBs were determined through Tensile, Charpy impact and Vickers Hardness tests. By means of metallography of WBs, it was determined that the length of the AF needles increases in 113 and 183 % when adding SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs, respectively. Related to the mechanical properties of the WB, the tensile and yield strength decreases with both additions, SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs. The microhardness at WZ was found to decrease by adding such oxide-NPs. Moreover, the impact energy absorbed by the WBs increases approximately by 83 or 57% due to SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs addition, respectively.
The objective of this study was to compare five methods of forage preservation (ice, dry ice, liquid-N, drying in newspaper, and sundried) on the concentration of the n-alkane C31 in Medicago sativa cv Puebla 76 (lucerne/alfalfa), Trifolium repens latum (white clover), Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass), Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu grass) and Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass/cocksfoot). The sampled forages in ice and dry ice were kept in hermetically sealed plastic bags in a plastic cooler. The deep frozen samples were put into small plastic bags and submerged in liquid-N. The samples dried in newspaper were placed between sheets of newspaper, and put into hermetically sealed plastic bags. All these samples were taken to the laboratory and freeze-dried approximately 24 h later. The sun-dried samples were taken to the laboratory in newspaper and sun-dried for 48 h. The forage samples were ground and worked on in triplicate, extracted by the Soxhlet method (C34 n-alkane was used as standard and n-heptane as solvent), saponified, separated, purified and injected into a gas chromatograph. The data were analysed for variance as a randomised factorial (n=74). The comparison between means was by the Boneferroni test (P<0.05). The interaction between forage and method of conservation was significant P<0.0001). There were no differences between methods of conservation for white clover (mean 26mg C31/kg DM) or orchardgrass/cocksfoot (mean 31 mgC31/ kgDM). In comparison with liquid-N, (261 mgC31/kgDM), the other methods reduced the concentration of n-alkane in kikuyu grass by 27-35%. Sun and newspaper dried samples increased the concentration of C31 in alfalfa/lucerne by 6 and 15% respectively in comparison with freezing with liquid-N (291 mgC31/kgDM), while that frozen on ice reduced C31 by about 8%. This method, however, increased the ryegrass n-alkane by 12% in relation to liquid-N (169 mgC31/kgDM), but sun drying reduced it by about 40%. It is concluded that drying in liquid-N is the most reliable method for the conservation of samples for n-alkane analysis.
We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12, which is the largest available white dwarf catalogue to date, to study the evolution of the kinematical properties of the population of white dwarfs of the Galactic disk. We derive masses, ages, photometric distances and radial velocities for all white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres. For those stars for which proper motions from the USNO-B1 catalogue are available, the three-dimensional components of the velocity are obtained. This subset of the original sample comprises 20,247 stars, making it the largest sample of white dwarfs with measured three-dimensional velocities. The volume probed by our sample is large, allowing us to obtain relevant kinematical information. In particular, our sample extends from a Galactocentric radial distance RG = 7.8 to 9.3 kpc, and vertical distances from the Galactic plane ranging from Z = +0.5 to –0.5 kpc.
We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12, which is the largest available white dwarf catalog to date, to study the evolution of the kinematical properties of the population of white dwarfs in the Galactic disc. We derive masses, ages, photometric distances and radial velocities for all white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres. For those stars for which proper motions from the USNO-B1 catalog are available the true three-dimensional components of the stellar space velocity are obtained. This subset of the original sample comprises 20,247 objects, making it the largest sample of white dwarfs with measured three-dimensional velocities. Furthermore, the volume probed by our sample is large, allowing us to obtain relevant kinematical information. In particular, our sample extends from a Galactocentric radial distance RG = 7.8 kpc to 9.3 kpc, and vertical distances from the Galactic plane ranging from Z = −0.5 kpc to 0.5 kpc. We examine the mean components of the stellar three-dimensional velocities, as well as their dispersions with respect to the Galactocentric and vertical distances. We confirm the existence of a mean Galactocentric radial velocity gradient, ∂〈VR〉/∂RG = −3 ± 5 km s−1 kpc−1. We also confirm North-South differences in 〈Vz〉. Specifically, we find that white dwarfs with Z > 0 (in the North Galactic hemisphere) have 〈Vz〉 < 0, while the reverse is true for white dwarfs with Z < 0. The age-velocity dispersion relation derived from the present sample indicates that the Galactic population of white dwarfs may have experienced an additional source of heating, which adds to the secular evolution of the Galactic disc.
I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6–7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.
Parenting, conceptualized as a specific form of teaching, may inform mentalistic, culture-based, and functional definitions. Combined brain-imaging, hormone-measurement, and cognitive-behavioral analyses indicate the importance of mentalization circuits. These circuits appear to function according to culture, and cross animal species. Further, these approaches shed light on sex differences through work on fathers as well as mothers, are affected by psychopathology, and may be amenable to treatment in ways that may be applied to optimize teaching.
Behavioral change may occur through evolutionary processes such as running stochastic evolutionary algorithms, with a fitness function to determine a winning solution from many. A science of intentional change will therefore require identification of fitness functions – causal mechanisms of adaptation – that can be acquired only with analytical approaches. Fitness functions may be subject to early-life experiences with parents, which influence some of the very same brain circuits that may mediate behavioral change through interventions.