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The present study investigated the effect of hydrothermic maize processing and supplementation of amino acids (AA) in two experiments. In total, 60 barrows and 384 broilers were fed four diets including either unprocessed (T1), or hydrothermically processed maize, that is short- (T2), or long-term conditioned (LC) (T3), and subsequently expanded maize of the same batch. Assuming a higher metabolizable energy (ME) content after processing, the fourth diet (T4) contains maize processed as treatment T3, but AA were supplemented to maintain the ideal protein value. Performance, digestibility and product quality in both species were assessed. Results show that in pigs receiving T4 the average daily feed intake was lower compared with the other treatments, whereas no difference was observed in broilers. The T3 improved the feed conversion rate compared with T1 (P<0.10) for both species. In contrast, average daily gain (ADG) (1277 g/day for T2 and 1267 g/day for T3 v. 971 g/day for T1) was only altered in pigs. The hydrothermic maize processing increased the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, starch and ether extract after acid hydrolysis. This may be a consequence of higher ATTD of gross energy in the finishing phase for both animal species, suggesting a higher ME content in diets with processed maize. The higher ME content of diets with processed maize is supported also by measurements of product quality. Supplementation of AA in T4 enhanced the loin depth in pigs as well as the amount of breast meat in broilers. Further effects of processing maize on meat quality were the reduced yellowness and antioxidative capacity (P<0.10) for broilers, likely due to the heat damage of xanthophylls and tocopherols. Processing also increased springiness and chewiness (P<0.10) of the broilers breast meat, whereas the loin meat of pigs showed a decreased lightness and yellowness (P<0.10) in meat when hydrothermic processed maize was used (for T2, T3 and T4). LC processed maize (T3) showed the lowest springiness in pork, however the supplementation of AA in T4 did not show differences between the treatments. Shown results demonstrated positive effects of hydrothermic processing of maize on animal performance and digestibility in both species. However, effects on carcass characteristics and product quality differed. The negative effects on product quality could be partly compensated with the AA supplementation, whereas a change in meat colour and reduced antioxidative capacity was observed in all groups fed hydrothermic maize processing.
A large set of narrow-band images of planetary nebulae (PNe) have been studied together with the location of their nuclei (PNNi) on the logTeff – logL/L⊙ plane, in order to disclose possible correlations between the morphological class of the PNe and the evolutionary stage of their PNNi.
We present narrow band images and spectra illustrating the morphological and kinematical characteristics of a new class of planetary nebulae. It consists of all those objects in the catalogue by Schwarz et al. (1992) whose morphology shows no other symmetries than point–reflection about the central source. This peculiar shape is often determined by pairs of ansae or blobs separated from the central body of the nebula. The kinematical data show both low (e.g. IC 4634) and high (He 2–186; Vexp > 135 km s−1) velocity outflows.
Using the data from the catalogue of PNe images of Schwarz et al. (1992), we have classified 255 nebulae into 5 morphological groups. The images were taken through a filter centred on the Hα line and included the [NII]6583 line. Most of the observations were made with the 3.5m ESO NTT during commissioning time. The main groups are called: stellar (st), irregular (i), elliptical (e), bipolar (b), and point-symmetric (p). The ellipticals are subdivided into: simple (e), multiple event (em), and inner structure (es) types. The bipolars into: simple (b), and multiple event (bm). The point-symmetric objects into: simple (p), and multiple events (pm).
Optical spectroscopy is used to derive the electron temperature and density of the jet of R Aqr. We present polarimetric data which shows that the degree of polarization in R Aqr can vary by up to two orders of magnitude and that this variation is correlated with the phase of the Mira. The polarization angle also varies with the phase of observation.
Twenty - two Wolf-Rayet stars (12 of type WN and 10 of type UC) were observed in the years 1986-1990 with the VBLUW photometer of Walraven. Eight (WC and WN) objects appeared to be constant. Five of the in total 14 variable objects will be discussed in the present paper: UR46 (WN3 pec), WR50 (WC6+a), WR55 (WN8), WR86 (WC7) and WR123 (WN8).
Simultaneous spectroscopy is made for WR46 and WR50. These results will be also discussed in short.
In order to synthesize the eclipse light curve of V444 Cygni, we adopt the following model. The O star revolves round the WR star still within the outer regions of its extended atmosphere. The O star shadows a distinct volume of the WR atmosphere which thus cannot contribute to the total flux seen by the observer. On the other hand, additional radiation emerges from the surface of the O star. Its contribution to the total flux is more or less diminished by absorption when the rays pass through those parts of the WR atmosphere which lie between the O star and the observer. The WR atmosphere is given by our usual models (cf. Hamann and Schmutz, 1987; Wessolowski et al, 1988).
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
Using a sample of 29 bipolar Planetary Nebulae (BPNe) we show correlations between the luminosity and SED shape with the inclination to the line of sight of the objects polar axes. The presence of an equatorial “doughnut” of material around the central object can explain both these correlations and also and the bipolar shape.
We have observed a sample of 16 PNe of different morphological classes (from stellar to bipolar) in the mm-region, using the 15m Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST). Continuum observations at 230 GHz were made with the SEST bolometer, and recombination line and continuum observations at 99 GHz (H40α) and 147 GHz (H35α) were made with SIS receivers.
A high resolution spectroscopy survey of symbiotic stars is conducted in the southern hemisphere by the authors, using the Coudé Echelle Spectrograph (CES), equipped with a CCD at the ESO Coudé Auxiliary Telescope (CAT), and concurrently in the northern hemisphere by Bode, Evans, Meaburn and collaborators, using the UK facilities at La Palma. So far, more than 400 spectra of about 70 stars have been obtained, mostly during 1988 and 1989. The southern part of the work will be described below.
The discussion of symbiotic stars in the context of novae is not far-fetched. A number of symbiotics are known to have nova-like outbursts, and several novae are not easily distinguished from symbiotic stars. A noteworthy example is the most recently recognized recurrent nova, V745 Sco, first observed by Liller on July 24, 1989. It is described here, both because in late decline it represents a link between novae and symbiotic stars, and because of its current interest.
We present preliminary statistical results of an ongoing polarimetric survey of symbiotics. So far, 38% of the known symbiotics have had their polarization measured at least once. About 40% of S and D types show some intrinsic polarization while only one of the five measured D’ types is polarized. R Aqr is still the only symbiotic with strong, variable polarization.
A 2-dimensional classification system for symbiotic stars based on the 5007/4861 and 3727/5007 line ratios adapted from the method of Baldwin et al.(1981) is presented. It is shown that a simple measurement suffices to classify stars and no reddening has to be taken into account. Symbiotics fall into 2 distinct classes in the line ratio plot. The dusty and S types. Neither type coincides with either the planetary nebulae or the HII region locus. The highest excitation is found for the dusty types. The two dimensional distribution can be interpreted as evolutionary, the more evolved Mira containing symbiotics lying closer to the PN locus. The fact that there are few D, D’ type symbiotics would indicate that the phase between Mira and PN is short.
Among the microstructure defects in hexagonal graphitic boron nitride, the basal plane corrugations are of high relevance for the sp2 to sp3 phase transition under high pressures (HP) and high temperatures (HT). A microstructure model is described, which is capable of quantifying the amplitude of the basal plane corrugations on the basis of the anisotropic X-ray diffraction line broadening. It is illustrated that this model correctly reproduces the specific shape of the diffraction lines from corrugated basal planes, i.e., the characteristic splitting of the 00l peaks. The results from XRD are verified by direct observation in the transmission electron microscope with high resolution. Subsequent HP/HT experiments were performed in order to highlight the difference in the phase transition kinetics between hexagonal boron nitride samples with different amount of basal plane corrugations. The effect of these microstructure defects on the conversion rate and on the obtained synthesis product is discussed.
Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants’ performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test–retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r=.791; p<.001). The criterion validity of the new task was supported, as it exhibited a strong positive correlation with the WAIS Symbol Search (r=.717; p<.001). Predicted convergent and discriminant validity patterns of the FMRI Symbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance. (JINS, 2015, 22, 1–8)
Fifty years have elapsed since the passage of the Community Mental Health Centers (CMHC) Act in 1963 that reflected the legislative peak of the community mental healthcare movement in the US Progress of the last 10 years is represented both by expansions of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and the development of emerging practices and fundamental shifts in the orientation of the system stimulated by the consumer-driven recovery movement. Established EBPs have accumulated expanded evidence, new EBPs have been developed and emerging EBPs are gaining increased acceptance. While the lack of widespread implementation of EBPs as well as the limitations of these technologies produces unnecessary suffering and disability, we believe that the growth of evidence for treatments and services justifies optimism for the future.